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THE 

BtACK 
CANDLE 

CmilyRMurphy 

"janey Canuck" 



The 

Blacli) Candle 



Judge Emily F. Murphy 
"Janey Canuck" 



1H0MAS 

ALLEN 




m.ipiiii 1.1 iiiupmip 




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I»'m#. 



The Black Candle 




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fiiMililliiiiiilil 



The 

Black Candle 



By 

Emily F. Murphy 

"Janey Canuck" 

Police Magistrate and Judge of the Juvenile Court, 
, Edmonton, Canada 



Illustrated 



THOMAS ALLEN - PUBLISHER 

TORONTO 



p![:^B|: : % 'i|p#|-;| 



Copyright 1922 
by Emily F. Murphy 

ALL RIGHTS 
RESERVED 



-TO THE MEMBERS OP 

THE ROTARY, KIWANIS, AND GYRO CLUBS, 

AND TO THE WHITE CROSS ASSOCIATIONS 

WHO ARE RENDERING VALIANT SERVICE 

IN IMPEDING THE SPREAD OF DRUG ADDICTION, 

THIS VOLUME 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



PRINTED IN ' CANADA 



iiMiiNiiMMi 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



SIX years ago, when appointed a Police Magis- 
trate and Judge of the Juvenile Court at Edmon- 
ton, the capital city of the Province of Alberta, I was 
astonished to learn that there was an illicit traffic in 
narcotic drugs of which I had been almost unaware, 
and of which the public was unaware. 

Year by year, this traffic has steadily grown but 
still the Canadian public are comparatively unenlight- 
ened concerning the ravages the traffic is making. 

I began to study the subject with considerable as- 
siduity, my official position affording me the oppor- 
tunity of gleaning information not readily available 
to writers generally. It also brought me into active 
and intimate touch with the addicts and pedlars them- 
selves, so that I was enabled to study them at first 
hand learning the causes which were responsible for 
their downfall and considering those which might lead 
to their rehabilitation. 

The responsibility for the traffic; the possibility of 
staying it; the methods that should be adopted to this 
end ; these were the questions which pressed for an 
answer and which led to my publishing in Maclean's 
Magazine, Toronto, the articles which go to form Part 
I of this volume. 

Since that time — for nearly two years — I have re- 
ceived hundreds of letters concerning the subject from 
different parts of Canada and the United States, and 

5 



6 THE BLACK CANDLE 

not a few from Great Britain. Some of the writers 
desired information; others had a wealth of it to give. 
To the latter, I desire to gratefully express my in- 
debtedness. 

Numerous letters came from families in which mem- 
bers thereof were addicted to some form of narcotic, 
thus becoming a burden and often a shame to the 
other members. This is a problem that weighs heavily 
upon thousands of homes and which, in as many in- 
stances, has seriously crippled their efficiency and even 
their safety. 

Such were the causes which led to a continued study 
of the subject, and to my embodying ■ the results in 
Part II of this volume. 

Although there are v over two million drug addicts 
on the American Continent, and a vast unnumbered 
army who live by exploiting them, I cannot find that 
any volume dealing with the subject generally has 
ever been published. . 

There have been brochures on some phase of it, 
several medical works, and one or two books on a 
particular drug. 

This is the more remarkable when we consider the 
religious, social, racfal, medical, monetary and crim- 
inal aspects of the subject, and the urgent necessity 
for data concerning them. 

It would have seemed that my study was to no 
purpose and my efforts to no end had I not essayed 
to make deductions therefrom and to have suggested 
remedial action. These suggestions are made, how- 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 7 

ever, with deference to those specialists who are versed 
more fully on certain phases of the traffic. My sug- 
gestions will, at least, serve as points upon which 
experts may argue, or from which they may show us 
a better way. 

While facing the* drug evil without blinkers, I have 
endeavored to discuss it without offending the sen- 
sibilities of the readers. 

All honest men and orderly persons should rightly 
know that there are men and women who batten and 
fatten on the agony of the unfortunate drug-addict— 
palmerworms and human caterpillars who should be 
trodden underfoot like the despicable grubs that they 
are. 

And all folk of gentle and open hearts should know 
that among us there are girls and glorious lads who, 
without any obliquity in themselves have become vic- 
tims to the thrall of opiates, 

"Till they perish and they suffer 
Some, 'tis whispered — down in hell." 

It is fitting then, that both as readers and writers 
we should approach this urgent matter with teachable 
spirits, with tolerance for each others' opinions, and 
with wills ready to act in conjunction where duty 
seems to direct. 

Edmonton, May 1922. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



CHAPTER 




PAGE 


I. 


Pips Dreams . . . . 


15 


II. 


The Traffic . . . 


23 


III. 


The New Buccaneers 


31 


IV. 


Opium . . . . . 


39 


V. 


Snowbirds and Owls 


48 


VI. 


Heroin Slavery . . . . 


55 


VII. 


Passing on the Habit 


62 


VIII. 


Doctors and Magistrates . 


69 


IX. 


Soldiers and Drug Addiction 


84 


X. 


The Cure . . 
PART II. 


94 


I. 


The Black Candle . . . 


105 


II. 


Traffic in the United States . 


115 


III. 


Young Addicts 


123 


IV. 


The Drug Traffic in Canada . 


136 


V. 


Ways of the Traffickers . 


146 


VI. 


Trappers All . . 


154 


VII. 


War on the Drug Ring 


165 


VIII. 


International Rings . . . 


178 


IX. 


Prisoners at the Bar 


. 190 


X. 


A Comparison and a Question . 
9 


. 200 



10 THE BLACK CANDLE 

CHAPTER 

XL Black Smoke . 

XII. Cocaine . 

XIII. Girls as Pedlars 

XIV. The Hypodermic Needle 
XV. Prescriptions 

XVI. The Immediate Withdrawal Cure 

XVII. Opened Shutters . 

XVIII. Prohibition and Drug Intoxication 

XIX. Opium ..... 

XX. Crime and Narcotics 

XXI. Drug Bondage .... 

XXII. The Living Death . . 

XXIII. Marahuana— A New Menace . 

XXIV. Orders eor Search . 
XXV. Spotter and Stooler 

XXVI. Drugs Generally . . 

XXVII. Salvage 

XXVIII. Healing 

XXIX. Forecast of" Victory 

XXX. The Contest. .... 

XXXI. Apologia . 



pag^E 
. 2<JS 

. 2^0 

. 233 

. 240 

. 250 

. 260 

, 270 

. 281 

. 287 

297 

308 

318 

331 

338 

347 

355 

361 

372 

380 

390 

397 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 



EmJly F. Murphy, Police Magistrate and Judge of the 

iTuvenile Court, Edmonton, Canada. . . . Frontispiece 

"An open-eyed insensate in the dread Valley of the Shadow 
of the Drug."— Chapter I, Part I. . . . - ., .30 

"When she acquires the habit, she does not know what lies 
before her ; later she does not care." — Chapter I, Part I. 30 

"The long flute-like pipe through which the devotee of the 
drug takes deep inhalation s, blowing the smoke through 
his nostrils."— Chapter I, Part II. . . . . .46 

"Once a woman has started on the trail of the poppy, the 
sledding is very easy, and downgrade all the way."— 
Chapter I, Part II. . . . . 46 

"Sometimes his head looks like a mere mummified skull." 
—Chapter IV, Part I. ....... 46 



The Keeper of an opium den in Northern Canada. 
Pipe dreams. . . . 



46 
62 



"Clannishness is one of the most notable features of opium 
smokers."— Chapter IV, Part I .62 

Opium pipes, Chinese scales, opium lamps, raw opium— seized 
by Government of Canada.— Chapter V, Part II. . . 78 

Drugs and smoking appliances seized by the Canadian 
Government in an effort to stamp out the illicit traffic. 
—Chapter V, Part II. . . . . . , * 78 

11 



12 THE BLACK CANDLE 

Burning opium and pipes at the State House, California, 

Cocoanut containing Yen shee medicine. . . . . J 94 

Contraband drugs to the value of three-and-a-half million) 
dollars which were destroyed by the police at New York. 
—Chapter VII, Part II ■•.-.'• -/ 94 

A Typical Group of Drug Addicts. . . . . . 190 

Cocaine secreted in cigars not meant to be smoked. . . 254 

Opium pipes and narcotics seized by the police. . , 254 

Cocaine which was found secreted in a doll, a jar of cold 
cream, a cake of soap, and the heel of a slipper, , . 254 




PARTI 
CHAPTER I. 

PIPE DREAMS. 

Half-open his eyes were — dull with 
the smoke of their dreams. — Yeats. 

AN opium smoker questioned, "If I should gain 
heaven for a pice (coin), why should you be 
envious?" 

His question is based on two lies. The smoker does 
not gain heaven, and we are not envious. 

Certain slack-twisted persons of both sexes, in 
search of possible adventures, or desirous of surcease 
from the pain of their own inefficiency, may be led to 
think there is something felicitous in the smoker's 
"heaven," as here set forth, but they think amiss. 

One has but to come closely in touch with the 
smoker to know that his vaunted "pipe dreams" are 
' not invariable visions of moon-haunted nights, flower- 
starred islands, and the hushing of velvet wings. 

On the contrary, he dreams more often of tremen- 
dous glooms and fatal slopes, and that he cries for 
help with a voiceless throat. 

Instead of a heaven, his open-eyed dream ultimately 
becomes a terrible hell, "a dwelling deadly cold, full of 
bloody eagles and pale adders." 

Opium addicts, especially if they be poetic, throw a 

15 * , ' 



16 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



lure over their vice and write of it as "a song that 
sleeps in the blood," but few write of their tears that 
are bitter as ink, and how they get to know all the 
untold sorrows of the world. 

Of course, they do not tell these things, for every 
drug-fiend is a liar. The dream in their blood is only 
a morbid and clamorous appetite — yes, and a vulgar 
one. 

Besides, an inveterate user of drugs has no more 
blood in his body than a shrimp. Indeed, because of 
their pallor and extreme emaciation the Chinese de- 
nominate the advanced addicts as "opium ghosts." 
And the name is apt, being descriptive above all others 
to these ashy-faced, half-witted droolers; these unfor- 
tunate cringing creatures who are so properly casti- 
gated by the whips and scorpions they have made for 
themselves. 

"Why then do they smoke?" you ask. Again I 
reply, for f orgetf ulness. ,, Maybe, they smoke too for 
the excitation of the senses, an effect which the new 
smoker gets on five grains but which, it is said, re- 
quired as high as 270 grains for an old smoker. 
Through its medium, the seduction of women addicts 
becomes easy. By the continuous use of the drug, 
this excitation disappears and, in cases of men, results 
in impotency. 

Sometimes, a man will come to the magistrate to" 
tell of his domestic infelicity and how his wife has 
deteriorated both mentally and physically. She has be- 
come careless of her appearance, and indolent; neglects 



ifT T i ,! 



PIPE DREAMS 



17 



her home/and remains away all night, or even for 
days. He has thought of every reason but opiates, and 
is staggered when the idea is first suggested to him. 
Then, he begins to understand why she stole money 
from him; the reason she sold her jewelry; why she 
has become so ill-looking and her face so fretted with 
wrinkles. He begins to comprehend the case of her 
continuous despondence and her desire to commit 
suicide, and why she is "gey ill to live wi\" 

A man or woman who becomes an addict seeks the 
company of those who use the drug, and avoids those 
of their own social status. This explains the amazing 
phenomenon of an educated gentlewoman, reared in a 
refined atmosphere, consorting with the lowest classes 
of yellow and black men. It explains, too, why some- 
times a white woman deserts or 'farms out* a half- 
caste infant, or on rare occasions brings it to the 
juvenile court for adoptions 

Under the influence of the drug, the woman loses 
control of herself ; her moral senses are blunted, and 
she becomes "a victim" in more senses than one. 
When she acquires the habit, she does not know what 
lies before her; later, she does not care. She is a 
young woman who is years upon years old. 

Realizing that no woman may become or remain de- 
graded without all women suffering, you may attempt 
something in the way of salvage, only to find that to 
reform her would be about as difficult as making Eve 
from the original rib. Unrestrained by decorum, void 
of delicacy of soul, moulded by vice, the companion 



18 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



PIPE DREAMS 



19 



of debauchees and drabs, she seems to be one of those 
desperately "down-and-out" women who, for her life 
dictum has taken the words "Evil, be thou my good." 

Sometimes, her husband takes her to another city; 
or the police may gather her in for a term in jail, 
Sometimes, she goes to the asylum, and sometimes 
she dies, but more often she just lives on, a burden and 
heart-scald at home and abroad. 

When we consider the quiet, insidious way in which 
the drug habit lays hold on those who dally with it; 
how it distorts the moral sense of the habitue, and the 
enormous human wastage that results therefrom, we 
cannot but agree with Dr. C E. Terry who describes 
drug addiction as "one of the most vast, complex, and 
depressing chapters of national and international life, 
and one which has no parallel in all the stories of 
human misery and misunderstanding." 

But while we have been speaking of opium smoking, 
it should be borne in mind that this is the least com- 
mon form of drug addiction owing to the difficulties 
attending its practice, and the greater probabilities of 
its detection by the police. 

. Its derivatives, such as morphine, heroin, and codein 
are, however, used enormously, especially by the male 
portion of this Dominion. The same ratio of male ad- 
dicts to females prevails in the United States. In this 
connection Mr. Charles B. Towns who has studied the 
question for years says, "Women, .though constitu- 
tionally more liable than men to feel the need of medi- 
cines, form the lesser portion of the drug-taking class." 



Women are more given to the use of veronal, trio- 
nal, sulfonal and other habit-forming drugs which are 
taken to relieve insomnia, without the users realizing 
the attendant dangers. These drugs are coal-tar de- 
rivatives and do not come under the drugs prohibited 
by the Opium and Drugs Act of Canada. 

It may come about that, some day, regulations 
governing the use of these will be thought advisable 
for, after all, the man who said "Anything that acts 
like an opiate IS an opiate," was talking very sen- 
sibly. The users do not speak of these drugs as 
opiates but as "hypnotics" although discriminating 
persons might prefer the former word. Physicians 
say the effect of these coal-tar derivatives is to thin 
the blood and disturb the heart's action, thereby pro- 
ducing neurotics. 

Perhaps the most popular of the prohibited drugs 
in Canada is cocaine, in that its use does not require 
pipes as for opium, nor sub-cutaneous injections as 
for morphine. It is also more easily smuggled and 
gives a quicker and more intense result than any other 
drug. Indeed, the snuffers of cocaine are frequently 
designated as "happy-dusters" because of their sense 
of exhilaration and satisfaction. Cocaine has the 
distinction, tot), according to an eminent authority, of 
providing for its users "the shortest cut to the insane 
asylum; it takes them across lots." These are the 
folk who hear buzzing and imperious voices from the 
night, or from the republic of deadmen. Remorse, 
jealousy, and fear make themselves faces that leer, 



'ifi 



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20 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



PIPE DREAMS 



21 



glower and threaten while an unknown persecutor 
pours electricity into their bodies, or poisons their 
food. Their mood varies from fierce elation to that 
of sullen, sardonic melancholy. 

Cocainomaniacs are commonly called "cokies," and 
as a rule, get scant sympathy from the medical man 
or police officials who are obliged to deal with them. 

And yet, in our more leisurely hours, the most case- 
hardened of us, recalling their deplorable condition 
and fear-haunted faces, must perforce recall the words 
of the poet who said, 

"I have looked into all men's hearts. 
O secret terrible houses of beauty and pain, 
And I cannot be gay, and I cannot be bitter again, 
Since I have looked into all men's hearts." ^ 

It has been found in different countries that the use 
of noxious drugs changes from time to time, the maxi- 
mum addiction passing to the one most easily pro- 
curable. 

In the United States, in 1907, cocaine was the drug 
most used because of the breaking up of opium smok- 
ing. Two years later, opium had a revival and claimed 
25 per cent, of the addicts. 

In 1909, morphine had driven out nearly all com- 
petitors and was favored by 98 per cent, pf the addicts. 

In 1910, heroin began to be used and by 1916 it was 
the dally "dope" of 81 per cent, of the addicts, the 
balance depending largely on morphine. 

Heroin, which is put up in tablets, is a derivative 
of morphine and is three times stronger than its parent 
drug. 



In enquiring into the growth of the drug habit in 
Canada, it is hard to secure reliable data outside that 
given in the Government Reports. For one thing, we 
are not given to tabulating our cases and it is, there- 
fore, difficult to get evidence that would stand in a 
court of justice. Fdr another thing, we lack the scien- 
tific attitude of mind, desiring to bolster up our 
theories or pet prejudices, rather than to set forth 
the naked truth. 

Many prohibitionists will advise you not to say 
publicly that the drug habit has increased, lest 
"the liquor people" make unfair use of your statement. 
Conversely, the liquor people make absurd and 
sweeping statements concerning the ill-effects of pro- 
hibitory enactments, without adducing facts or figures 
to substantiate their claims. 

The same difficulties, in a somewhat lesser degree, 
are encountered when one enquires from the pharma- 
cists, physicians, military authorities, customs officials, 
alienists and even the police themselves. People are 
prejudiced, indifferent, ignorant, or fear to express 
themselves lest they get into trouble with their superipr 
officers or with their departments. The great major- 
ity, however, are merely unobservant and inattentive. 
The constatle on beat who can tell whether a man has 
a fit, is a drug addict, or only sleeping off the results 
of "squirrel" whiskey, is a very clever fellow indeed, 
and heading straight for the chief's chair and the 
chief's salary. 

In this respect, he differs little from those of us who 



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22 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



are magistrates. We are too hurried and too worried 
to enquire closely into the causes of mania. We like 
to think this is the province of the doctor, and that it 
does not concern us. We do not know whether, the 
person committed pending the orders of the Attorney- 
General, has been an habitual user of narcotics, and 
some of us do not even care. 

In most asylums the patients are only housed, bathed 
and fed. They are seldom individualized for treat- 
ment as if they were ill at home, or if in the wards of 
a hospital. 

Similar conditions prevail in the majority of pris- 
ons. No one seems to know how many convicts are 
drug-users. One jail surgeon will tell you the num- 
bers are negligible; others will say that they are 
alarming and that it is difficult to prevent the traffic 
of drugs, or to keep the prisoner's friends from sup- 
plying him surreptitiously. 

There are, nevertheless, a fine majority of official 
persons who are not afraid of the truth. If prohibi- 
tory enactments lead to an increase of drug addiction, 
they desire to know it in order that they may prepare 
for and intelligently cope with the menace, even as 
they are doing with the liquor traffic. 

Among the other classes mentioned, we are indebted 
to a few officials Who are concerned deeply, and who 
are eager for a vigorous policy of suppression on the 
part of the Federal Government. May their tribe live 
and increase! 



•I lih I! -i I' n 'l |J T« iU' 1'ii, "li i!|l I li' in-! 1 i "'l 



CHAPTER II. 



THE TRAFFIC. 



"Brute skeletons surround thee here, „ - 

And tiead men's bones in smoke and mold. — Faust. 

WHEN we come to examine the Reports of the 
Inland Revenue Department, the Board of 
Health at Ottawa, and to read Hansard and the Blue 
Books, we find a wealth of data that is absolutely re- 
liable, upon the narcotic drug traffic. 

Here we ascertain that, until six months ago, when 
certain drastic restrictions were made, the magnitude 
of the drug traffic in Canada was admittedly appalling. 

In the year 1912, only 35 ounces of cocaine were 
imported into this country. Seven years later, the 
imports had jumped to 12,333 ounces. 

In the year, 1915, a remarkable drop in imports oc- 
curred, the number of ounces being only 50. 

In the same year corresponding drops occurred in 
morphine and crude opium. 

Mr. D. A. Clark, the Assistant Deputy Minister of 
Health, says this is probably accounted for by the 
fact that owing to the disturbances of the war the 
avenues of trade had not yet become adjusted, and 
stocks of these drugs were being held up by interested 
parties in the hope of sale for war purposes at very 
greatly enhanced prices. 

In 1907, Canadians imported 1,523 ounces of mor- 

23 



24 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE TRAFFIC 



25 



phine. Ten years later, we were importing 30,000 
ounces. 

When we come to speak of opium imports, it should 
be borne in mind that the quantity is computed in 
pounds, and not in ounces, as with morphine and 
cocaine. 

In 1907, 67,464 pounds of opium passed through 
our Customs. The next year, 88,013 pounds went 
through. After this time, the imports began to de- 
crease till, in 1916, they fell to 1,741 pounds. By 
1913, they had risen again to 34,263 pounds. 

It is Well at this point to consider the source of our -' 
supply. In 1918, the United States supplied Canada 
with .1,913 pounds of crude opium; Persia sent us 
2,853 pounds, and the British Empire 7,705 pounds. 

In the same year, we got 4,795 ounces of morphine 
from Great Britain and 5,043 ounces from the United 
States. 

For cocaine also, the United States is our chief 
source of supply. In 1918, we bought from that 
country 3,754 ounces, as against 923 ounces from 
Great Britain. 

A few months ago, our Department of Health went 
into co-operation with the Department of Trade and 
Commerce to actively suppress the trade in narcotics 
to the lowest legitimate point, and the result as de- 
veloped may reasonably be looked upon with some 
degree of pride, the trade having depreciated nearly 
200 per cent 

This came about 1919, through the passing of the 
following Order-in-Council :— 



"That it is expedient to provide that every per- 
son who imports or exports from Canada any 
coca leaves, cocaine or any of their salts of pre- 
parations, or any opium or its preparation, or any 
opium alkaloids or their salts or preparations, 
without first obtaining a license therefor from the 
Minister who is presiding over the Department 
of Health, shall be guilty of an offence, and shall 
be liable upon summary conviction to a fine not 
exceeding one thousand dollars and costs, or for 
a term not exceeding imprisonment for one year, 
or to both fine or imprisonment, and that these 
provisions shall be read as one with the Opium 
and Drug Act, chapter seventeen of the Statutes 
of 1911, and everything in the said Act which is 
inconsistent with this resolution be repealed." 

II. 
It is stated on excellent authority that more than 
95 per cent, of the whole quantity used in Canada is 
imported into or about the City of Montreal, and 
most of the remaining 5 per cent, is bought by other 
dealers in Quebec. While it may be true that several 
of the largest wholesale drug firms in Canada are 
situated in Montreal, it is also known that that city 
is the headquarters for illicit distribution of this type 
of drug, and that a very large percentage must, be 
smuggled into the United States. 

Whether this claim is correct we cannot say, there 
being no figures to cover operations in smuggling. 
Our government officials claim that, in the United 




THE BLACK CANDLE 

States the regulations against importation has raised 
the price of drugs in that country, and has caused 
illicit vendors to look to Canada for a supply. 

The "Survey" for February 1919, published in the 
United States, says "Drugs are smuggled from Canada 
and Mexico and sold by bootleggers and unscrupulous 
physicians." This statement may be true to some ex- 
tent, but there is evidence to show that we are subject 
to a similar plague of drug-peddling from the United 
States. 

Previous to the passing of the Harrison I, aw in 
1914, in the United States, their people consumed 
more habit-forming drugs than even the people of 
China. Their opium alone cost $18,000,000, and it 
was believed there were 5,000,000 addicts, or one in 
every twenty persons. This is probably an exagger- 
ated figure, but it was definitely discovered that about 
90 per cent, of the amount of opiates imported was 
used for the corrupting of youths and maidens between 
the ages of 17 and 22. 

How much of this 90 per cent, was smuggled into 
Canada for a similar purpose we are unable to state, 
but we know the proportion was large. 

Be this as it may, our Canadian Government, 
through the Opium and Drugs Act, has taken upon 
itself the duty of striking strongly at narcotic drugs 
by its police arm and are deserving of the highest 
commendation. / 

^ Notwithstanding this, it is plainly palpable that the 
illicit trafHc in our Dominion has grown to menacing 



THE TRAFFIC 



27 



proportions and, as yet it remains to be grappled with. 
There is no gainsaying the immensity of the tinder- 
taking, but it will never be so easily dealt with as now. 
That the Government needs to take sharply remedial 
measures, especially in dealing with the addicts them- 
selves, is also palpable. Since the war we have gleaned 
new ideas about the wastage of human material, and 
the duty of conserving life. 

Where the addicts are concerned, we must not let 
ourselves fall into the pagan and horribly callous at- 
titude of the late Dowager Empress of China, known 
to her people as "the Old Dragon." When urged 
not to sign the decree against opium on the grounds 
that there were over nine million addicts in the Empire 
and that their sufferings would be painful beyond 
comprehension, she asked "How many will die?" Her 
advisers informed her about three millions. "That 
is not many in proportion to the benefit" she replied 
imperially. 

In this country it is our desire to have the benefits 
from its suppression without destroying our people 
or unduly impairing their efficiency. Such desirable 
results cannot be . accomplished without careful plans, 
legislative sanction, and ample backing from the 
public. 

III. 
But, undoubtedly, Mr. W. L. MacKenzie King, in 
his report published in 1908 on "The Need for the 
Suppression of the Opium Traffic in Canada," struck 



28 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE TRAFFIC 



29 



the right note on this phase of the subject when he 
said: — 

"Other instances of legislative enactments to 
suppress the opium evil, and to protect individuals 
from the baneful effect of this drug might be 
given, if further examples were necessary. What 
is more important, however, than the example of 
other countries, is the good name of our own. To 
be indifferent to the growth of such an evil in 
Canada would be inconsistent with those prin- 
ciples of morality which ought to govern the con- 
duct of a Christian nation." 

Mr. King wrote these words in 1908, when the Chi- 
nese residents had presented claims to the Federal 
Government for losses occasioned by the anti- Asiatic 
riots during which seven of their opium factories were 
destroyed. 

Mr. King, then the Minister of Labor, further said 
that the amount consumed in Canada, if known, would 
probably appal the ordinary citizen who is inclined 
to believe that the habit is confined to the Orientals. 
The Chinese with whom he had conversedassured him 
that almost as much opium was sold to white people 
as to Chinese, and that the habit was making headway, 
not only among white men and boys, but among 
women and girls. 

This was eleven years ago, and no particular atten- 
tion was paid Mr. King's warning, with the result 
that all the provinces of Western Canada are, today, 
suffering immensely from this evil. In referring to 



the traffic in drugs, the Editor of the Edmonton 
Journal, said in December 1919: — 

"It is known that vast forces are now en- 
gaged in peddling morphias, opiums, and lesser 
known and even more devilish narcotics and 
stimulants. A few days in the Edmonton police 
court would reveal the extent of the system here 
in the far north, and it is certain that a vast in- 
ternational organization is handling the importa- 
tion and supply of huge quantities of every sort 
of vicious drug. Action cannot be taken too soon." 
Anyone who has lived in British Columbia knows 
that where the Chinese have their own districts, much 
smoking is indulged in. 

Several years ago, with two plain clothes men known 
as "dope cops," I visited Chinatown in Vancouver, 
that queer district where men seem to glide from no- 
where to nothing. 

In entering Shanghai Alley, I was warned to stand 
clear of the doorways lest a rush be made from inside, 
when I would be trampled upon. 

In passing up a narrow .staircase of unplaned boards, 
one detective walked ahead and one behind me, each 
carrying a flashlight. "Why do you keep me between 
you?" I asked. "Gentlemen should precede a lady 
up a stairway." 

Without replying, the head man stopped about mid- 
way up, and inserted a long key into a board when, 
to my amazement, a door opened where no door had 
been visible. Here, in a small cupboard, without a 
window— a kennel of a place— lay four opium de- 




i- 'i-J ilhlll 1 -'.'I si' I 



30 



THE BLACK CANDLE . 



bauchees or, as the police designate them, "hop-heads." 

The hole was absolutely dark and the men slept 
heavily. Although plainly narcotised, the police might 
not apprehend the sleepers. One may only arrest 
those found in the act of smoking. It would seem 
that here, as in the best English circles, the eleventh 
commandment is "Never interrupt." 

And so, in like manner, several doors were opened 
for me, to show how I was being protected from a 
stealthily opened panel, and all this might mean to a 
witless, worthless, lamb like me. As you looked and 
looked again on these prostrate, open-eyed insensates 
it began to dawn on you what Bret Harte meant when 
he spoke of "The dread valley of the shadow of the 
drug." 

In one of these dens, the detective suddenly pointed 
like a dog on game. "Opium !" he said, "I smell 
opium." 

Almost immediately from over our heads, we heard 
the pad of running soft-shod feet, for the game was 
up and afield. Upon entering the room above, no one 
was to be seen, but the room was filled with the sickly 
fumes of cooked opium. Only the month before, a 
half-dazed unhappy wretch in an attempt to escape 
from the police threw himself off the. roof of a build- 
ing and died on the pavement beneath. The other 
Chinamen, to have revenge, swore that one of these 
detectives had thrown the man off. The detective 
charged with this crime was the one ahead of me with 
the long key. 



'Cl- 



- , ' t ; c®\ m zJ§ 






*3i 



' .V 




A 



"An open-eyed insensate in the dread Valley of the Shadow 
of the Drug."— Chapter I, Part T. 




"When she acquires the habit, she does not know what lies 
before her ; later she does not care "—Chapter I, Part I. 






liiiit 



■•:' y! : in ii-i-;:! ,■■ .. Ij: : 



CHAPTER III. 

THE NEW BUCCANEERS. 

"Vice is peripatetic, 
Always in progression."— Owen Feltham. 

WHILE the drug habit affects all classes of so- 
ciety in Canada, there would seem to be more 
addicts, per capita, of the population, in some districts 
than in others. 

Sometimes, one is inclined to think otherwise, and 
that the seeming difference is due to the various 
methods adopted in its detection. 

In Edmonton, Alberta, our morality squad, or 
"plain-clothes men/' who find inhibited drugs in the 
possession of any person are awarded half the fine by 
the magistrate. Indeed, any informant is awarded 
this if a conviction be made. 

In Toronto, Winnipeg and other cities, this pro- 
cedure is not pursued! It is claimed that if it were 
generally practised, the detectives would do no other 
work. 

We think this is a mistaken contention for, here in 
the north, we have as large a quota of convictions 
for other criminal offences as they have in the more 
southerly cities. 

But apart from the sharpening of the official senses 

where the ferreting out of drugs is concerned, a moiety 

of the fines ought to be paid to the men who trail down 

31 
2 



32 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



the addicts and the illicit vendors. The traffic in drugs 
is carried an with such strict secrecy that the utmost 
caution and patience are required to secure informa- 
tion and evidence. This being secured, to force an 
entry to a drug den at two o'clock in the morning 
when the "dopers" are irresponsible either wholly or 
in part, is an unpleasant and often a dangerous task. 
A man needs to take his courage in both hands for, 
generally speaking, infuriated dopers are no herd of 
sheep. 

In smoking, the Chinaman reclines on a mattress on 
the floor, having beside him a pan which contains the 
opium "lay-out." The cracks of the windows and 
doors are packed with wet cloths that the odor of the 
smoke may not escape. For the same reason, the key- 
hole of the door is plugged, thus preventing its being 
locked with a key. The door is secured with a butcher 
knife driven into the door- jamb. 

Finally, the available furniture is piled against the 
door to guard against surprises. It is this butcher 
knife in the door-jamb, that constitutes the chief est 
danger to the detectives who come with an order for 
search, although more than one officer has been killed 
by a bullet sent through the panel of the door. Two 
years ago, the Chief of Police at Vancouver and one 
of his men were murdered in this way while waiting 
in a hall-way for a dope-fiend to give entry. 

In Toronto, they tell us that the Chinese used to 
smoke openly, but since 1911 when the Opium and 
Drug Act came into force, open smoking ceased and, 
as a result, there are fewer convictions. 



THE NEW BUCCANEERS 



33 



Knowing the Chinese temperament and habits, one 
conjectures whether smoking is not as freely indulged 
in as formerly, but with probably more careful pre- 
cautions and safeguards. 

But if Toronto pays no douceur to the morality 
squad, still it has given considerable attention to the 
examination of the books and prescriptions of the 
druggists. If a druggist is selling more narcotics than 
other druggists he must render an accounting or lose 
his license. 

On one occasion, to show the officers how easily it 
could be done, a drug "fiend" without a prescription 
from a physician, dentist or veterinary, went out from 
the police station and bought several No. 1 Parke 
Davis drug-kits from different pharmacists, the money 
having been supplied him by the detectives. It must 
not, however, be deduced here that this is possible in 
every pharmacy, for in Toronto, as elsewhere, the dis- 
reputable dispenser of drugs is greatly in the minority. * 

In Toronto, too, an inspector from the College of 
Pharmacy inspects the books of the different drug 
shops in order that he may scrutinize and compute the 
sales. 

It is their claim, also, that the drug habit is not in- 
creasing in the Queen City. 

Without seriously questioning this claim it is never- 
theless, hard to credit that any densely populated por- 
tion of Canada has had no proportionate share in the 
consumption of narcotic drugs, the importation and, 
sale of which have so enormously increased during 






34 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



the past six years, especially when no special preven- 
tive efforts have been taken, other than those which 
obtain elsewhere. No reason has been given for this 
phenomenon unless we accept the theory that a vastly 
higher moral standard prevails in Toronto than in 
other cities. Without being facetious, we are prepared 
to acknowledge that this is possible and may be quite 
true. 

In Winnipeg, it is officially stated that the habit is 
growing rapidly, and that the police have on their 
lists the names and addresses of hundreds of persons 
who are inveterate users of narcotics. 

It was recently declared by an investigating commit- 
tee in California that the drug distribution centre for 
all America is in Western Canada. The evidence upon 
which this astounding assertion is based has not been 
made public but it is quite possible, even probable, that 
this assertion is true. 

Owing to the vigilance of the narcotic squads whose 
work it is to search in-coming vessels on the Western 
Coast of the United States, smuggling from the Orient 
is becoming more difficult all the time, although the 
International Year Book of 1918 says that probably 
one-half of the opium which enters the United States 
is brought in by smugglers, and that despite restrictive 
legislation, the amount has certainly not diminished. 

It was found that opium was being brought to 
America in chests of tea; in coal-bunkers; in the beams 
of the vessels ; under the stairways ; behind panels in 
the saloon ; in water-tanks, and even in the ship's 




THE NEW BUCCANEERS 



35 



piano. Sometimes, it was smuggled by means of nut 
shells. The nut was cut in half, the kernel removed; 
the cavity filled with opium and the two parts glued 
together again. It was sold to the drug-users in this 
form. Indeed, the Chinese used to smuggle opium in 
chairs which they said were family heirlooms but, 
one day, the truck of a stevedore struck an heirloom 
on a gang-plank and released eighty pounds of opium. 
It was found that even the legs of this chair were 
stuffed with the drug. 

It is claimed that less adroitness is required to land 
contraband in Canada than in the States, and that it is 
brought here daily in many and various containers, 
even in musical instruments. 

Other than the assumption made by government 
officials at Ottawa that opium was being smuggled 
into the States from Montreal, it had occurred to few 
of us, if any, that an immensely greater traffic might 
have gained foothold in Western Canada. We took 
for granted that the commerce in drugs was directly 
between the United States and China, not dreaming 
that Canada might be the intermediary in the same. 

It is alleged that this nefarious traffic in the States 
has been partially carried on by Pullman-car porters 
and even by customs officials who grew rich in the 
trade. We are unable to vouch for the truth of this, 
but it might not be too hard for officials, at certain 
specified points to release bonded consignments of 
opium which were camouflaged as tea, preserved gin- 
ger, or bamboo shoots. 



36 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



These modern-day buccaneers could weir afford to " 
pay $5,000 to an official on a consignment which would 
net them $50,000 in profits. 

"But our officials in Canada would not be guilty," 
you' say. Certainly not. We do not even suggest it. 
We are only telling the Federal Customs Department 
what might happen here if our immunity to bribes 
were not absolutely above suspicion. 

When, however, it comes to railway porters — Ah 
well! there are some we know of personally whose 
liberty is more attributable to their good luck than 
their good behaviour. Indeed, we know a certain 
blackamoor — an erstwhile porter — who, at the present 
moment, is languishing in prison on a term imposed 
by ourselves. This fellow is also under penalty for 
having in his possession what must assuredly have 
been the most obscene literature ever printed. 

One can hardly imagine anything more dangerous 
than a filthy-minded drug-addict in charge of a coach 
of sleeping people, whatever his color may be. 

When this man's quarters were raided, six pipes, a 
quantity of prohibited drugs and a woman were taken. 
The woman who had a kind of zig-zag appearance, 
assured us in court that she had just "happened in" 
the opium rooms by the merest accident, but the tremor 
of an isolated muscle in her face; her trembling gait; 
her leaden pallor ; the closely contracted pupils of her 
eyes; and her stupefaction which approximated senile 
dementia, were all definitely symptomatic of recovery 
from an opium debauch. 



mm 



iHjj|||||!|i|| 



THE NEW BUCCANEERS 



'37 



Where their Pullman-car employees are concerned, 
the railway companies leave no stone unturned to se- 
cure well-recommended porters, and to supervise these 
as closely as circumstances will permit, but it is not 
humanly possible for companies to prevent men, if 
these be so disposed, from giving rein at times to ig- 
noble and swinish appetites. Even the Old One him- 
self couldn't do it. 

Having said this about porters, one cannot in fair- 
ness, leave the subject without paying tribute to those 
other faithful "boys" in the service who are so solid 
and sensible that they seem almost super-civilized. 
It takes rare probity of character to keep returning 
purses, watches, diamond rings and other mere im- 
pedimenta that careless folk lose daily in every Pull- 
man berth, to say nothing of overcoming the des- 
perate desire of testing the contents of flasks that 
protrude invitingly from pockets on nearly every 
clothes-hanger. 

Yes! there are many porters, however depleted 
their finances, who will have absolutely no truck with 
the scoundrelly business of drug-pedlary. 

Railway detectives tell us that on the West Coast 
of Canada, opium is thrown overboard in rubber bags, 
or other receptacles, from in-coming steamers. This 
flotsam is taken into open boats, at certain points in 
the harbors, by confederates of the smugglers, thus 
evading discovery in the customs-house. They also 
tell us that unless you are accustomed to handling it, 
you might not even recognize opium as such. Com- 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



mercially it comes in different forms but, most fre- 
quently, in square plugs that are the color and shape 
of chewing tobacco, or in lumps like oval dumplings. 

The Police allege that an inter-provincial traffic is 
carried on by means of agents. The opium is carried 
in tin cannisters by one man who passes on the residue 
to another man at the borders of the next province, 
and so on across the Dominion. 

When it comes to smuggling narcotics across the 
boundary line between Canada and the United States, 
a whole volume could be written on the subject, but 
one has no desire to teach "Smuggling without a 
Master," so one refrains. Suffice it to say, that detec- 
tives now look with close scrutiny into the extra car- 
tire at the back of motors. 




CHAPTER IV. 



OPIUM. 



I,ike a maleficent influence released, 

From the most squalid cellarage of hell. — W. E. Henley. 

OPIUM is the juice of the white poppy {papver 
sommferum) and is the sap which exudes from 
incisions made on the outside of the capsules when 
they have attained their full growth after the fall of 
the petals. The poppy was well known to ancients, 
its cultivation being mentioned by Homer, and its 
medicinal properties by Hippocrates. 

Morphine is an alkaloid of opium — that is to say, 
its active vegetable principle having alkaline qualities. 

Codein is also a derivative of opium. 

Opium and its derivatives are distinguished by a 
flavor that is acrid, nauseous and bitter. 

Opium is smoked; morphine is taken hypodermic- 
ally, or by the mouth. Hypodermic injections are 
more favored by the users of this particular drug in 
that they become intoxicated without the disagreeable 
effects of the substance. Then, too, when morphine 
is swallowed, it takes longer to produce its solacing 
effect. . 

Contrariwise, the use of rMe hypodermic is attended 
with dangers from an infected solution or from a 
dirty needle. Frequently, morphine habitues will in- 
sert the. needle into their arms without the precaution 
of rolling up their sleeves. This infection results in 
the formation of abscesses. 

39 



40 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Last year, a young bride of three months who had 
married an addict, and had herself become one, was 
charged with having opium in her possession unlaw- 
fully. 

During the trial, she became hysterical and began 
to beg piteously for morphine of which she had been 
deprived from the day previously. She complained of 
intense neuralgia, chills, thirst and abdominal pains. 
Finally she collapsed. Surely, the soul of her was 
"full of scorpions: she had supp'd full with horrors." 

On stripping her for a hypodermic injection, the 
physician and matron found her body to be literally 
covered with angry-looking carbuncles which the 
physician said were due to infection from the needle. 
She became quiet immediately after she had received 
her daily dose. 

Her husband who was charged conjointly, was in 
hardly a more comfortable condition, complaining of 
muscular cramps and profuse sweating. 

This man who came from a notable Canadian fam- 
ily, had already served several terms in jail for 
breaches of the Opium and Drugs Act. He, too, had 
to receive attention from the doctor who showed me 
the victim's condition. 

The upper part of the man's body was so punctured 
by the needle that there was no flesh available for 
fresh "shots" except on his back. His arms and chest 
looked more like a perforated milk-skimmer than any- 
thing else. He told us his skin had become so thick 
and hardened, he broke many needles in trying to in- 



mm^f::^^y 



'■!■-_ iL- i'i 



OPIUM 



41 



sert them. He also confessed to having lost his sense 
of taste and that he was losing his memory. He has 
taken so much morphine that he will soon be immune 
from it as a poison and can hardly be killed by it, a 
state which is known to physicians as Mithridatism. 

Surely, the late Earl of Shaftesbury who devoted 
his life to the study of social problems such as these, 
was wholly within the mark when he described drug- 
addiction as the greatest of modern abominations. 

The difference between the opium smoker and the 
morphinist, is that the opium smoker does not fear the 
slavery of the habit while the morphinist does. For 
a truth, the latter always suffers from a sense of un- 
certainty and dread. The sword of Damocles is for- 
ever hanging over his head. 

The smoker of "the soothing pipe" is usually quiet 
unless fearful of arrest, or when deprived of the drug; 
then he becomes highly irritable. 

One who has tried the effects of the pipe puts them 
in this order: (1) vertigo; (2) stimulation; (3) tran- 
quility; (4) after three or more pipes, profuse per- 
spiration, prickly heat, thirst, fear, intense desire to 
sleep. The novice usually becomes talkative. 

The sleep which succeeds is a prolonged one. The 
following morning, the smoker has a headache that 
aches, no appetite worth mentioning, and his tongue 
is furred like a brown musquash pelt. 

On the other hand, the morphinist gets no pleasure, 
but merely forgetfulness of life. If use of the drug 
be persisted in, he becomes egotistical, quarrelsome 



42 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



OPIUM 



43 



and difficult; also, he is. subject .to terrifying hallu- 
cinations. He ages quickly; becomes indolent, para- 
sitical, totter-kneed, and without enough brawn to 
throw a puppy dog. 

But in whatever form these drugs are taken, they 
degrade the morals and enfeeble the will. No matter 
what their status has been, inveterate users of drugs 
become degraded. All are liars; nearly all become 
dishonest. Being deprived of the drug, they will go 
any length to get it, even to thievery and prostitution. 
While sober they are uncomfortable, and prolonged 
abstemiousness hurts them like nails driven into the 
flesh. ' . -. ;!l \] 

Because her craving for the drug had to be satisfied, 
a young woman from one of the rural districts, sold 
her handbag, dressing-case, fur coat, and wedding- 
ring in Edmonton. We were not able to recover these, 
having no one to corroborate her statements. When 
not shut up, her days and nights were spent in garages 
and opium joints. 

After all her negotiable apparel had been sold, we 
got her a railway ticket and persuaded her to go home. 
She is making a tremendous effort to recover from 
"the grey peril," and it is now a year since she has 
visited town. Being superstitious, and realizing the 
danger of boastfulness, we are here "touching wood." 

II. 

In answer to the question, "What constitutes an 
addict?" Dr. James A. Hamilton, Commissioner of 
Correction for New York City, says, "If a person 



takes opium or its derivatives for three months stead- 
ily, taking three hypodermics a day, he will become a 
true addict, and were he to stop abruptly he would 
show decided withdrawal symptoms. As a rule, ad- 
dicts must increase the dosage as they go along in 
order to obtain, the desired results." 

A victim has given us a similar answer in. which he 
addresses Morphia as a goddess who has turned to 

be a dragon. , 

"One swift prick was enough ' 

In days' gone by to invoke her : 
She was incarnate love 
' In the hours when I first awoke her. 
Little by little I found 
The truth of her stripped of all clothing, 
Bitter beyond all bound, 
Leprous beyond all loathing. 

Dragon of lure and dread, 
Tiger of fury and lust, 
The quick in chains to the dead, 
The slime alive in the dust." 

Clannishness is one of the most notable features of 
opium smokers. Like the drinking of wine, it makes, 
for a foregathering. - 

Because of the dangers attending its detection, much 
care must be exercised in its use, especially in Canada 
where neighbors are inclined to be friendly and to 
call at unseasonable hours. Yes! and neighbors may 
even be curious. "Of course, I am interested in my 
neighbor," says one. "Why shouldn't ^ I be? That 
fence between us only whets my appetite." 

As a result, in certain houses and hotels— both 
rural and urban— the users of the pipe borrow the 



|; ; ; |:i ■:;,;:,;,. \ \ r .\ :.j, . v" ;",',;., [X^ 



'i -'"I ' ■ '! ' ' ' "''! ii| ' ,"" ■ 



44 ' 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



OPIUM 



45 



"lay-out" belonging to the Chinese cook. Should the 
noisome, insinuating odor escape, no one is. suspected 
but Ah Sin. Should the place be raided, Ah Sin is 
apprehended for being in the unlawful possession of 
opium. He pays the fine, this sallow, unsmiling 
Oriental, and says nothing for, after all> he loses 
nothing but his inconsiderable reputation. 

"The Boss he pay back, allee light. Boss he hop- 
head allee samee China boy." 

Do you say this thing is abhorrent and hardly 
credible? 

Sirs and Madames, on such evidence we, ourselves, 
have issued orders for search and warrants for appre- 
hension. The evidence is usually obtained by secret 
service men in the employ of the police departments. 

We said awhile ago that opium smokers liked com- 
pany, a fact that frequently tends to their undoing, 
for when an addict has been in custody for a day or so, 
he will often give the names and resort of his par- 
ticular coterie if, by this means, he can secure even 
one smoke to satisfy his craving. 

Sometimes, a group of entertainers will live at a 
house where all the lodgers are drug-takers. Recently, 
a landlady and three of her lodgers were charged 
before us with having opium in possession for other 
than scientific or medicinal purposes. The boarders, 
all of them under twenty-two years of age, were 
dancers and singers at cabarets. All were fined except 
the landlady, a bleared, toneless, half -awake creature, 
who was committed to jail. 



Not so long ago, a Scotch detective brought in a 
Chinaman and a girl whom he found smoking in a 
piano case, underneath a curtain of hemp sacking. 
The girl who was rarely beautiful and only seventeen 
years of age, was released from custody on suspended 
sentence to take a position as stenographer in a legal 

firm. ' 

This same Scotch detective, whose nose has been 
specially constructed for smelling cooked opium, found 
a negro smoking the drug in a wardrobe with a white 
woman on either side of him. Over their heads they 
had a thick tartan which our detective calls "a pled," 
and into this the negro blew the smoke which the 
women inhaled. By this means the three persons be- 
came intoxicated on one pipe. Folk must exercise 
thrift these days when card-cakes are high. 

This misuse of the tartan was, to our Scotchman, 
the evidence of an amazing effrontery; the proof of 
a unique unscrupulousness, with which the breach of 
the Opium and Drugs Act was a mere bagatelle. 

We spoke of "card-opium" just now. For the un- 
initiated, it is here explained that for selling in a small 
way, opium is made into cakes about the size of a 
fifty-cent piece. This is placed on the centre of a 
playing-card, and the card is bent in half, the opium 
adhering to the inside like a wad of chewing gum. 

This opium is smoked over two or three times, as 
the residue of ash is large. By some, this ash is called 
yen shee. After repeated smokings, to give it piquancy 
it is mixed with a sort of salt which is a Chinese 
preparation. 



lllilllll 



Ill 



t i'T ip,!,.r,i|i, h \, i r n .*'"ifi|iL ? 1 •'] .T-'fi-S '""'"" i' ''i' 



46 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Or the ash may be mixed with cocoanut-oil and 
taken internally. These are called "hop-pills." There 
are one-pill men; two-pill men, and three-pill men. 

Or, again, the ash may be made into a thick gummy 
liquid. This is drunk with black tea, or Boston coffee, 
but not with water. 

The faces of inveterate smokers are darker than 
those of the morphinists, and anyone who has to deal 
with drug-fiends may learn to know the difference. 
The smoker's face becomes sallow and dead-looking. 
Sometimes, his head looks like a mere mummified 
skull. 

In chapter one we said that opium and its deriva- 
tives were frequently used by people for their aphro- 
disiacal qualities, but that the end was impotence and 
sterility. 

A young woman who came to my office after her 
release from jail, complained bitterly that now, be- 
cause she had become normal again, she was liable 
to motherhood. Physicians have since assured me that 
the woman's claim was correct; that drug-addiction 
leads to amenorrhoea. 

While it is well that opium addicts tend to become 
impotent yet, in face of a persistently falling birth- 
rate, this phase of drug-addiction is of the utmost 
importance, and is another reason why the scourge 
should be firmly dealt with in Canada. 

Dr. C. W. Saleeby has recently pointed out that in 
Great Britain, in 1919, for the first time, the deaths 
have actually exceeded the births. He also points out 




■■■■■■■■■■I 

"The long flute-like pipe 
through which the* devotee of 
the drug takes deep inhala- 
tions, blowing the smoke 
through his nostrils." 

—Chapter I, Part II. 




"Sometimes his head looks like 
a mere mummified skull." 
—Chapter IV, Part I. 




"Once a woman has started on 
the trail of the poppy, the 
sledding is very easy and 
downgrade all the way." 
—Chapter 1, Part II, 



The Keeper of an opium den 
in Northern Canada. 



," "I,, ' . • ■ : ' i 'i i ' "1 



OPIUM 



47 



that there are more Germans in Germany than there 
are Britons in the whole of pur Empire, and contends 
that in a generation or so, these prolific Germans, with 
the equally prolific Russians, and the still more fertile 
yellow races, will wrest the leadership of the world 
from the British. 

Wise folk ought to think about these things for 
awhile. 



CHAPTER V. 

SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS. 

"What does the owl say, baby — baby? Out 

in the dark night hear him cry. 
He says that there'll be plenty of peaches 

spread on the housetop by and by, 
He'll have a feast, the grey old robber, when 

the peaches are put to dry." 

IN the excellent provisions of its Narcotics Act; 
its administration, and in the treatment afforded 
to drug-addicts, the Province of Manitoba probably 
leads Canada. Of the results achieved, we shall speak 
later, our attitude for the moment being directed to 
mixed addiction, but particularly to cocaine and 
heroin. 

B. J. McConnell, M.D., of Winnipeg, the Adminis- 
trator of the Narcotics Act, who is putting both 
energy and good thought into his work, says in a recent 
letter, "The drugs used in Manitoba are; 1st mor- 
phine; 2nd cocaine; 3rd heroin, but the majority take 
the first two and average about ten or twelve grains 
of morphine a day, and ten to twelve grains of co- 
caine as Well." 

The reason for this mixed addiction is shown in 
a letter written by the magistrate of the men's police 
court at Calgary, Alberta, who says "Cocaine is prob- 
ably the drug which is most used and, from evidence 
that I have had before me, most people who are ad- 

48 



■:. |i ' I' j i: li " ! 'j: i ii"'") '! 



SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS 



49 



dieted to morphine find that the doses they require 
become very large, they have also to take cocaine to 
meet the requirements." 

Speaking of its general use, the magistrate also 
says, "I have heard it is a common expression amongst 
people whom you would hardly suspect, to jocularly 
ask another if they could give them a "bhang" which 
is a slang expression for a snuff of cocaine. It is in- 
creasing to an alarming extent, and, to-day, it is a 
menace to the country." 

It is found, too, upon searching the vendors of 
illicit drugs that ether, strychnine, and chloroform are 
secreted upon their persons, showing that mixed-ad- 
diction to deadly drugs is much more general than 
commonly supposed. 

Certain powders are also consumed as narcotics, 
but must be taken in large quantities. Indeed, one of 
the most troublesome and persistent of addicts in the 
north tells us that she uses these powders almost ex- 
clusively. She has become loveless and unlovely, a 
poor-hearted and shameless woman, and about as 
amenable to reason as a bit of dandelion fluff. 

It would seem relevant to here say that, in the 
searching of addicts or illicit vendors, the police must 
be inquisitive and painstaking rather than courteous. 
This is no task for an officer who is lumpish or a 

crackskull. 

Sometimes, when arrested, "a snowbird"— that is to 
say a man who snuffs cocaine, usually designated as 
"snow"— will draw out his cigarette box, light the 




THE BLACK CANDLE 



last cigarette, and flip the box into the wastepaper 
basket, or under the table. This flipping of the empty 
box is so casual and common in everyday life that one 
might easily be excused from thinking of the box as 
a receptacle for drugs. The skilled detective, however, 
picks it up, and so gets his clear case. 

Among women, the dope-takers hide cocaine in 
their hair, under the soles of their feet, in the seams 
of their coat, under braid, by rubbing it into white 
clothing, in the roof of their mouth where it is 
covered by the plate of their false teeth, or by secret- 
ing it on their body. 

In their homes, they hide it in a package of empty 
envelopes, in the feet of the bath-tub, behind sur- 
bases, in flower pots, in hollow door-knobs, or in some 
other place that might be overlooked . by the hunters. 
It seems to be quite true in crime, as in life; 
"To hunt and to be hunted makes existence; 
For we are all chasers or the chased." 
II. 

Cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the cocoa 
plant which grows in South America. It was first 
used in ophthalmic and surgical operations in 1884, 
but cocoa leaves have been chewed for generations to 
relieve fatigue. Indeed, in the year 1700, the poet 
Cowley wrote — 

"Our Varicocha first this coca sent., 
Endowed with leaves of wondrous nourishment, 
Whose juice suck'd >in» to the stomach tak'n, 
Long hunger and long labor can sustain." 

In Germany, extensive tests of its stimulating 



SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS 



51 



qualities have been made on soldiers, the drug being 
administered to them after forced marches. It was 
found that while small doses had a tonic effect, giving 
relief from physical and mental pain, a larger dosage 
had a deleterious effect, resulting in the clouding of 
the memory, singing in the ears, an inability to con- 
trol the thoughts, headache, delirium, and a dangerous 
melancholy. A person addicted to its habitual use 
is known as a cocanist In a later state, they are de- 
scribed as cocainomaniacs. When on the verge of 
suicide for need of the drug, they are said to have 
"the cocaine leaps." 

In this condition, they suffer from hyper-excita- 
bility and muscular unrest, thus inducing a mania for 
rapid motion. A considerable number of the persons 
who are convicted for drunkenness while driving 
, motor cars, have not. taken any alcohol but are crazed 
with cocaine. 

An ungentle young woman who came before us 
last winter, and who has been convicted for having 
inhibited narcotics in her possession, called a motor 
car at two o'clock in the morning. She had hardly 
entered it, when the driver felt the cold nozzle of a 
revolver against the back of his neck and heard a 
peremptory order to drive faster. Presently, the 
powerful car had reached the top limit of its speed, 
but still the woman kept ordering the driver to go 
faster and faster. Fortunately the streets were clear 
so that a policeman on a motor cycle was able to over- 
haul the mad riders and take the woman into custody. 



'''''"'''"'""'i' A '.Jim J 



52 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS 53 



Another result of its use, as a snuff, is necrosis of: 
the nasal cartilage, but for that matter cocaine applied 
to the mucuous membrane anywhere on the body will 
produce this effect. For this reason it is used freely 
in throat sprays, cough lozenges and catarrh powders. 

Because of this deadening effect, it is possible for a 
person under the influence of cocaine to refrain from 
food for a couple of days without suffering from the 
sensation of hunger. It has, however, no food value,, 
and a young married man tells us, that his bride, aged 
seventeen, who is suffering from drug-addiction dis^ 
ease, lost a pound a day in weight during ten day* 
she was away from him in hiding. 

III. 

Cocaine is usually retailed to the victims by illicit 
vendors in small paper packages of" about the size and 
shape of a postage stamp. These are called "decks," 
and contain a couple of "sniffs." Ordinarily these cost 
a dollar apiece, but if the purchaser is distempered 
for need of it, the vendor may extract two dollars or 
even more. Indeed, one of our women detectives 
tells us that in buying from the Chinese in their cafes, 
she must purchase cigarettes and noodles in addition. 
Before leaving Ah Sin sees that "the decks" are safely 
stowed away in her stocking lest those bear-fierce, 
claw-handed police-fellows find it in her pocket. 

In the United States, cocaine is sold to school-chil- 
dren as "coke" or "flake," and the vendors of cakes 
and candies offer it to be snuffed through a small tube. 
Mr. Owen C. Dawson, of the Children's Court in 



Montreal, is quoted in a New York paper as declaring 
that the scourge of heroin had been there, and that 
twenty-six druggists were arrested charged with 
its illicit sale but does not say whether these druggists 
sold to the children who were brought into the court. 
We know, however, that drugs are sold to children on 
the streets of the larger cities of Canada, a fact re- 
cently verified by the Federal Hjealth Department 
according to despatches from Ottawa, in February of 

this year. 

In an address delivered in 1919 before the Annual 
American Prison Association, one of the speakers 
said: "It is rare to come in contact with young men 
between sixteen and twenty-one who are confirmed 
alcoholics. Compare this with narcotic addicts. The 
general rule is that addiction is present mainly in 
youths from sixteen to twenty-one years of age. This 
is really the development age. Narcotics hinder de- 
velopment, and boys and girls are forever wrecked 
while still in a development period. Distracted parents 
come pleading for aid and advice. The complaint is 
always the same, i.e.," 'If we only knew the first signs 
of this dreadful curse we could have saved the boy/ 
If parents knew the signs of the beginning of drug- 
addiction they would have the victim treated im- 
mediately, and cured, before the habit becomes fixed. 
Once drug addiction becomes firmly established a 
positive cure is difficult, and the only way it can be 
accomplished is through institutional care and treat- 
ment." 



'!*■"' H "1* «*" " ' «•**■ "-"I 'I' >T » '■" * ■' ■" 



] ■ "' ! " ' 



i*' : 



illfill 



54 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Narcotics have also a pre-natal effect on children 
which is not generally known and which, perhaps, 
demonstrates Samuel Butler's dictum that life is eight 
parts cards and two parts play. 

The effect we refer to is mentioned by Dr. Ernest 
Bishop who says of drug-disease that its physical 
symptomatology are manifested in infants newly-born 
of addicted .mothers, and that many of these infants 
die unless opiates are administered to them. This, he 
declares, is a well-known fact among those who have 
made open-minded study and research into this con- 
dition. 

Such a case has been described recently by Dr. J, 
F. Laase, Associate Surgeon of St. Mark's Hospital, 
New York, in American Medicine. He says this child 
was born of an opium addict and displayed all the 
symptoms of addiction. The mother, who was 
twenty-seven years of age, had used opiates for two 
years. 

The baby was healthy and well-developed but, from 
the moment of birth, was very restless and had all 
the symptoms of drug-need, which could only be re- 
lieved by a drop of paregoric in water, this being 
placed in the infant's mouth by means of an eye- 
dropper. It was necessary to give this because the 
infant was showing signs of collapse and of general 
convulsions. When lactation was fully established, 
the necessity for the administration of paregoric 
ceased, the child obtaining the supply through the 
mother's milk. 



CHAPTER VI. 

HEROIN SLAVERY. 
"Where will I heal me of my grievous wound ?"-Tennyson. 

AS a narcotic, heroin is three times stronger than 
morphine and takes effect much more quickly. 
Its continued use will establish a habit in four or five 
weeks. It came into favor among physicians and 
pharmacists as having all the good qualities of a nar- 
cotic with none of its bad ones, it being claimed that 
it was a non^habit forming drug. 

Because of this mischievous fiction, it has now be- 
come so desperate a menace that the Academy of 
Medicine and the Psychiatric Society of New York 
have recommended that the Federal Government take 
such measures as are feasible to abolish its manufac- 
ture altogether. 

Heroin is morphine treated with acetic acid. A 
person who habitually uses it has a yellow face as 
though from jaundice. It is claimed that heroin-users 
desire to spread the 'habit more than any other drug 

addicts. 

Experts say that heroin and morphine are more dim- 
cult to withdraw than any of the narcotics, a sudden 
stoppage leading to a physical collapse and dangerous 

disorders. 

A couple of years ago, a stenographer in my office 

55 



11 'WT 11 '!"'!!' 11 1,r 



56 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



answered me in a highly insulting manner. Because 
she had always had exemplary manners, and because 
something in her eyes made one think of the flicker 
of crossed wires, I concluded she was ill, and probably 
had a degree or two of fever. 

This was how I came to restrain the hot words that 
were on the tip of my tongue, and to observe her in- 
stead. Presently, it was noticeable that she kept 
dropping her eraser; that she looked at the type of 
the* machine as though her vision was impaired, and 
that she worked the keys in a jumpy manner. 

Two days later, she was removed to a hospital suf- 
fering from a complete nervous collapse, alleged to be 
the result of heroin addiction. When last heard of, 
she was in a pitiful condition. 

II. 

While insanity sometimes results in the advanced 
stages of drug-addiction, it is not nearly so common 
as the public suppose. 

A statistical study of drug addiction which we have 
received from Dr. Horatio M. Pollock, Ph.D., the 
statistician of the New York State Hospital, shows 
that only a small part of the total number of drug 
addicts develop insanity; that they are admitted prin- 
cipally during the period of middle life ; that alcohol- 
ism of the father appears prominent in the history of 
drug cases, and that approximately forty-three per 
cent, of the patients used alcohol intemperately. 

Dr. Pollock also found that the native born were 
more liable to drug psychoses than the foreign born ; 



HEROIN SLAVERY 57 

that the cases rank high with respeet to literacy; that 
Twenty per cent, recover within one year from the 
!Te of admission, while five and one half per cent 
die within the same period. Approximately nine per 
cent, of the drug cases discharged are ^ a <™ . 

While insanity within the meaning of the Criminal 
Code is not so frequent among addicts, it must be 
borne in mind that through excessive use of narcotics, 
or by means of sudden withdrawal, the victim under- 
goes" what the French call "a crisis of the nerves 
which amounts to insanity, but wh.ch is only tem- 

P °When a man is criminally inclined, cocaine and 
heroin produce delusions which actually make h.m 
Su* and dangerous to be at large." These drugs 
also give him courage without reason; make his vision 
more acute, and steady his hand so that he may com- 
mit murder with ease. 

•1 have noticed" says Dr. J. B. McConnell of Win- 
ning writing in this connection, "that the majority 
ofpetty thieves and hold-up men are usually addicts 
and they are very dangerous, and if ever they ask you 
to throw up your hands, I would advise you to do 
so at once, because they have to get the money in order 

^^thelour murderers of Herman Rosenthal 
were being tried, it was discovered that three of them 
were drug addicts who, before committing the deed, 
had to be "charged up" with cocaine, and it was under 
the leadership of "Dopey Benny," a slum addict, that 




58 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



HEROIN SLAVERY 



59 



a band of twelve dope-fiends hired out their services 
to "beat-up" or murder any individual, their regular 
fee for assassination being $200.00. 

This winter, two women were brought before me, 
one of whom was charged with inflicting grievous 
bodily harm on the other. 

The accused, a slip of a girl weighing ninety-eight 
pounds, had stabbed an older woman with a large 
sharp-pointed blade. When the blade was raised for 
the second stroke, the victim grasped it in her naked 
hand, with the result that her fingers were almost 
severed as the blade was drawn away. 

The police gave evidence, that the little girl, when 
arrested, was plainly under the influence of a narcotic. 
SJie apparently had not recovered when brought into 
court where, with a face like a grey paving-stone, she 
sat huddled up and wholly inattentive to the pro- 
ceedings. 

Persons suffering from cocaine-insanity have deep- 
seated delusions concerning electricity. Their nights 
become a termless hell when, because of their dis- 
ordered perceptions, electric needles play over their 
skin or an enemy pours "the juice" into their head. 
They see moving-pictures on the wall in which a hid- 
eous head, toothed and grisly, appears to insult and 
threaten them. Maybe the words of Shakespeare de- 
scribe their condition as well as any others, "A fool ! 
a fool! I met a fool in the forest." 

During the year 1917, the cases which passed 
through the Vancouver jail numbered 3,863, and of 



these according to the Chief-Constable and others, a 
large proportion were drug addicts, and it is believed 
that the use of drugs is probably one of the chief 
contributors to crime in British Columbia, in that it 
diminishes the responsibility of those who are mentally 
or nervously subnormal or disordered. 

It need scarcely be explained that a mentally ab- 
normal person whose abnormality has been further 
augmented by the use of noxious drugs, can hardly be 
kept from committing crime. Indeed, one of the Wes- 
tern police magistrates in writing me on the subject 
says, "The taking of drugs is undoubtedly the cause 
of a great deal of crime because people under its in- 
fluence have no more idea of responsibility of what is 
right or wrong than an animal." 

Another says, "The spread of drug-addiction has 
been so insidious, and so rapid in its growth, that it 
is only within the last few years an enlightened public 
has begun to realize its menacing nature. People in 
every stratum of society are afflicted with this malady, 
which is a scourge so dreadful in its effects that it 
threatens the very foundations of civilization." * 

Dr. James A. Hamilton, Commissioner of Correc- 
tion, New York, says in a letter "Drug users may be 
classified into two groups, the rich or "social" addicts, 
and the poor or "slum" addicts, the only difference 
between them being a matter of dollars and cents. 
The former have the financial means to buy the drug 
while the latter have not, and when the drug is with- 
held in either case, you will find them exactly alike." 



*f^N)WWIMf*||«p|W|«* 'PlMiflMl! JUT 



\i\i\ hIium.,, ?.„'/ \„' ^7™ W ^ • 



60 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



HEROIN SLAVERY 



61 



III. 

When we come to speak on the effect of prohibitory 
laws on drug-addiction, we are confronted with a 
great difference of opinion and an almost entire ab- 
sence of data. 

In a letter received in December, 1919, from Dr. 
Raymond F. S. Kieb, the Medical Superintendent of 
Matteawan State Hospital, N.Y., who is an eminent 
authority on drug-addiction, he says, "I am convinced 
that the statements the liquor interests include in their 
propaganda to the effect that drug-addiction increases 
enormously when dry laws go into a community, are 
much over-estimated. I have seen no substantiation 
of this statement and very much doubt its authen- 
ticity." 

A physician writing recently in the London Satur- 
day Review says, "The class of people who are habit- 
ually intemperate are not the sort of people who take 
drugs. The decrease of crime which undoubtedly 
goes hand in hand with the decrease of drunkenness 
is a stronger argument for maintaining the present 
difficulties in obtaining alcohol." 

On the other hand, there are very many persons 
who declare that when alcohol is taken away, a man 
naturally turns to noxious drugs for the stimulation 
formerly received from alcohol. 

They contend that because narcotic drugs, as con- 
traband, are more easily conveyed from place to place 
than alcohol, and because the sale of drugs is much 
more lucrative, their use must inevitably become more 



general. They tell us, too, that when a man has be- 
come intoxicated on an alcoholic beverage and is un- 
able "the morning after" to obtain a further supply 
on which to sober up, he resorts to "a shot" of mor- 
phine, or "a bhang" of cocaine, thus acquiring an 
appetite before unknown to him. 

While many wise and experienced persons are think- 
ing this way, because these statements are more fre- 
quently heard from the mouths of immoral and im- 
moderate persons, we are apt to dissent from them on 
principle. Yet, while these statements do not rest 
on well-substantiated data, by reason of their prob- 
ability and extreme plausibility, they cannot be lightly 

set aside. 

Because of this imminent danger in connection with 
prohibition, it devolves upon our governments, both 
Federal and Provincial, to take immediate and drastic 
steps to protect the public from the illicit vending of 
narcotics, and to enact such stringent measures as will 
effectually stamp out the drug traffic. 

By far the largest fight which temperance workers 
have yet undertaken is in front of them, and we are 
persuaded they will not strike flag. 



: 'T "[' : j • 



V !' ' ' ■! it 1- I! !l 



iwiiililliiiiiiii^il'ifet'i 



illHIilii 



CHAPTER VII. 



PASSING ON THE HABIT. 



The gods go mad, and the world runs red 

With a yintage pressed from the fats of hell, — R. W, Gilbert. 

\Y/ HEN one comes to consider the classes who 
W have become inveterate users of soporific drugs, 
their reasons for indulging themselves, and how de- 
moralized they become through the habit, one is apt 
to recall the remark Thackeray made about music, 
"For people who like that sort of thing, I should think 
it would be just about the thing they would like." 

When, however, you study the addicts more closely, 
and as individuals, you will find that a large number 
of these have formed the habit innocently, and that 
otherwise, they have not been either criminal or de- 
generate. 

Because it enhances their capacity for work, stu- 
dents "cramming" for an examination will take co- 
caine until, ultimately, cocaine takes them. For the 
time being the drug enables them to rein their will to 
the track but, after a while, they break and so lose 
in the long run. 

Having used the parlance of the ring, it might be 
relevant to say here that, in spite of heavy penalties 
inflicted on the guilty jockey, a horse is frequently 
"doped" or "doctored" before a race in order that it 
may become capable of extra effort. The effect wears 
off in about half an hour. 

62 




Pipe dreams. 




"Clannishness is one of the most notable features of opium 
smokers."— Chapter IV, Part I. 



- . . —«.« 



PASSING ON THE HABIT 



63 



For the same reason, prize fighters and bicycle 
riders allow themselves to be braced by "flake" before 
entering the rounds or races. 

In schools of music, there are students who take 
cocaine or heroin for the mental effect before doing 
"their turn" at recitals. They may take this to relieve 
their nervousness or because they have an idea this 
lends brilliance to their technique* Indeed, they will 
tell you quite frankly that it does. 

With only a limited space at our disposal, we dare 
not touch on the writers who take to drug dosage, 
thinking thereby to find "the magic nib." 

As an actuality, the drug usually makes them queer 
drivellers who are out-of-key with life generally. 
These are "the profane persons" described by Old Gill, 
the commentator, "whose writings are stuffed with 
lies, lewdness, and all manner of wickedness." By 
throwing a glamour over their vice, they have wrought 
much evil among neurotic, uncentred persons of both 
sexes who have aspired to literary distinction. 

. People suffering from pulmonary consumption take 
to smoking opium with the belief that it is a specific. 
Every Chinaman who uses "the dreamful pipe" will 
declare this to be a fact. That smoking affords some 
measure of relief is borne out by Dr. John Gordon 
Dill in the Lancet, who states that opium, when pre- 
pared for smoking in a certain way, eases the cough 
and acts as an expectorant. On the other hand, physi- 
cians tell us that consumption and nephritis are two 
of the diseases which most frequently kill morphino- 
maniacs, 

3 ...... v :■ . 



mmwm 



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I- - ' " l -, * I > L , i*-H| 



!' : vi' , ' ' ,"''' vi'ly"'!','!- 11 Ml 1 '] 



64 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



PASSING ON THE HABIT 65 



Some persons take to narcotics because of curiosity; 
from a sense of adventure ; to relieve insomnia or re- 
duced physical condition. Others take it because they 
are jaded, neurasthenic, or just naturally sluggish* 
Added to these, are the great army of men and women 
who are never happy unless indulging themselves. 

If you sit at a window on a main thoroughfare of 
any city and watch the crowd go by, you will observe 
that nearly every second person is smoking, chewing 
gum or munching sweets. As you watch and watch, 
it seems as if the whole world has become one horrific 
mouth that can never be satisfied. Maybe it is from 
this constant habit of tickling the palate or soothing 
the nerves, that our people are turning to strange and 
poisonous drugs. Who can say? 

Certain classes of society seem to take to certain 
drugs. We have shown that students, sports and de- 
bauchees are the votaries of cocaine or heroin, or of 
mixed addiction. 

It has been pointed out by Mr. Charles B. Towns 
that reputable doctors, writing on this subject, have 
alleged that fifteen per cent, of their own profession 
are addicted to drugs. The particular drugs were not 
specified, but it is known that pharmacists, druggists, 
veterinarians, dentists and nurses take more readily 
to morphine than to other drugs. This fact is diffi- 
cult of explanation, unless it is by reason of their skill 
in using the hypodermic needle, or because morphine 
may be more easily available. 

All classes* however, have one peculiarity, and that 



is their desire to pass on the habit. A single drug 
user in a community should be considered a menace 
to the whole of it. Nor does this remark apply solely 
to urban districts. One is amazed to find how the use 
of degrading drugs is becoming common in rural com- 
munities. 

* Last summer a father came to my office and related 
how his daughter, aged fifteen, had become inordin- 
ately attached to a woman from the city, who had been 
boarding at his farm. When the woman left the girl 
could hardly be restrained from following, declaring 
she must have some of the white powder the lady used 
to let her snuff from a handkerchief, 

The father — a simple, unschooled man — had heard 
of a mysterious concoction called a love philtre, and 
was persuaded that something of this nature had been 
administered to the child, thus bringing her in thrall 
to the woman. The story of the girl's "spells," how- 
ever, were strongly symptomatic of cocaine dosage. 

After a while, the girl seemed less nervous, but one 
night, a letter was taken from her desk showing an 
arrangement whereby she was to meet this woman, 
when a young man would take the girl on to the 
United States. It was to frustrate these nefarious 
plans, and to obtain protection against the woman's 
alleged machinations, that the father came to me. In 
Canada we are altogether too lax concerning subtle 
crimes on the person, which, utterly destroying the 
victim, amount almost to a murder. .The man or 
woman who, with evil intent, administers opiates to 



66 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



unsuspecting children, even in small doses, must 
properly be considered as a kind of super-brute, en- 
tirely lacking in any feeling so definite or coherent as 
sympathy. 

Patent medicines which have a wide sale secured 
this because of the lure of cleverly worded advertise- 
ments. How far the public have been misled by these 
advertisements may be gleaned from the fact that 
some of the so-called "cures" for the drug-habit were 
found to be only means of selling other narcotics. 

After using certain nerve remedies which produced 
sleep, people naturally drifted into the use of cocaine, 
morphine, and other undisguised somnifacients. Un- 
der the amendments to the Proprietary and Patent 
Medicine Act, assented to July 7th, 1919, this will now 
be difficult, if not impossible. 

Clause 7 of this Act provides that "no proprietary or 
patent medicines shall be manufactured, imported, ex- 
posed> or offered for sale, or sold in Canada, (a) if 
it contains cocaine or any of its salts or preparations 
. . . or (f), if any false, misleading or exaggerated 
claims be, made on the wrapper or label, or in any 
advertisement of the article." 

Clause 6 of the same Act, as amended, also pn> 
hibits "the manufacture, importation, or sale of all 
proprietary or patent medicines containing opium or 
its derivatives for internal use." 

That this enactment reflects great credit on the 
Federal Government, and that it will be a tremendous 
factor in suppressing drug-addiction must be frankly 
and gratefully acknowledged. 



f^V^r/i-'^Jv^'^ill^^lK^il'ir U^l 



PASSING ON THE HABIT 



67 



Nevertheless, it is quite apparent that the Knowing 
Ones have little difficulty in' securing, chloroform, 
ether, strychnine, chloral-hydrate, opium, cocaine and 
any of the drugs mentioned in the schedule to the Act, 
but through what channels these are obtainable we are 
unable to say. 

In a charge preferred before us, against a woman 
for illegally keeping intoxicating liquor for sale, the 
liquor turned out to be chloral-hydrate, commonly 
known as "knock-out drops." From the evidence of 
the analyst, it would appear that the quantity and 
strength of these drops were sufficient to drug the 
whole city. Although as black as the proverbial ace- 
of-spades, the woman set up a defence that the stuff 
was used by her as a complexion beautifier. 

Another woman, during an investigation into her 
mental condition, successfully argued that she was not 
at all insane but only distracted from the use of snuff, 
she having twelve boxes of it hidden away in her 
trunk. The boxes were found to contain cocaine, or 
"happy-dust." 

In February of this year, a man brought to Edmon- 
ton from the far north charged with murdering two 
men in the United States, had in his possession, be- 
sides a revolver and two hunting blades, a large bottle 
of strychnine. 

The Scandinavians in Western Canada, in order to 
set up what they call "a quick jag," drink ether mixed 
with alcohol, or with water. To obviate this, in Al- 
berta, an Order-in-Council was passed in 1918, pro- 



^'"'Miiip; Mhi'M 



68 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



hibiting any chemist or druggist from having in his 
possession, or selling for medicine, household pur- 
poses, or for external use, any formula for the com- 
bination of alcohol with ether. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES, 

There is a significant Latin proverb, to wit, 
Who will guard the guards ? — H. W. Shaw. 

IT would be difficult, as before intimated, to tell 
all the sources from which these inhibited drugs 
are procured. In large centres, in Canada, physicians 
have learned not to leave their vials containing nar- 
cotics lying around loosely. The careless handling of 
drugs in some hospitals has given opportunity for ad- 
dicts to steal narcotics. Writing of an improvement 
in this respect, the Superintendent of a large Canadian 
hospital, says, "In our hospital, to-day, we have the 
Drug Control System, by which every tablet is ac- 
counted for and no stock can be renewed without an 
accounting of what has been done with the last." 

When we come to consider the purchase of nar- 
cotics at drug stores, it is still more difficult to say 
how addicts secure supplies, for we are persuaded that, 
in spite of the temptation offered in the shape of pro- 
digious profits, the average chemist is conscientious 
and will not sell these except within the prescribed 
regulations. 

Addicts have told us that, on laying their money on 
a counter, they have been instructed by the salesman 
to help themselves from a certain drawer, and that 
no record was kept of the sale. Perhaps the clerks 

69 



70 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



are most responsible for the sale, and for the leaking 
of sedative drugs into the illicit lanes of commerce. 
These clerks steal from their employers either for their 
own use or to sell it; often for both. It is well-known 
that prostitutes procure these drugs from clerks and 
solicit orders from other prostitutes, getting a large 
profit on the sales. 

This surreptitious commerce in narcotics is largely 
Carried on in dance-halls and cafes, where incorrigible 
or feeble-minded girls think, by indulging in these 
drugs they are "good Indians" and "playing the 
game/' 

In this idea, the girls are encouraged by those para- 
sites of vice, whose nefarious business it is to break 
down their moral nature in order that they may be 
held more easily. These men are the limber-tongued, 
unregenerate rascals who so frequently talk about "the 
sex" and of "lovely woman," but who beat her upon 
nearly every opportunity. 

Since prohibitory liquor laws have come into force, 
and pharmacists may only sell intoxicants upon a 
doctor's prescription, we have learned that there is 
nothing to prevent the filling of a forged prescription. 
No obligation is imposed upon the pharmacist to 
verify the paper. 

Where sedative drugs are concerned, the same con- 
ditions prevail. A druggist who is careless, or who is 
not conscientious, may fill scores or even hundreds of 
prescriptions which are forgeries. 

In the year 1919, it was found by the Bureau of In- 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 71 

ternal Revenue that in New York City, 1,500,000 
prescriptions for the illicit procuring of narcotics had 
been issued and filled. In one drug store the police 
found a box containing 50,000 of these prescriptions, 
all filled in the preceding ten months. In most in- 
stances, in Canada, when the Police, under Clause 5 
of the Opium and Drugs Act, examine the books of the 
drug stores, they find that only a small portion of the 
narcotic drugs purchased from the wholesalers can be 
accounted for. The pharmacist explains that physi- 
cians purchased these by the vial, for medicinal pur- 
poses, and that no accounting of the sales is kept. 

But, apart from self -medication by means of quack 
nostrums, it seems like elaborating the obvious to 
explains how the majority of chronic inveterates have 
acquired the drug-habit by means of prescriptions 
given by the family physicians with the best of 
intentions. 

Neither is it necessary to explain at length that 
there are legitimate addicts, such as cancer patients, 
or other acute sufferers, who are dying of incurable 
maladies anci that these sufferers must be made as com- 
fortable as possible by means of narcotics. As a 
matter of fact, the opiate group of medicines in the 
Schedule of the Statutes, above quoted, are probably 
those we could least spare. One eminent authority 
said "There is no drug which will replace clinically and 
therapeutically the opiate group. At present, it is in- 
dispensable in meeting emergency indications as is 
the scalpel of the surgeon." 



' ' ' ' ' I i' - ''I .rp^S 



72 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Indeed, we personally know a woman who had 
suffered horrible agonies for weeks and who was ul- 
timately obliged to undergo a major operation. Hav- 
ing received relief from the derivatives of the poppy- 
flower, she wrote thus :- — "She is the beneficient fairy 
that has soothed the hurt of the world. She slows the 
living engine, cools the flaming wheels, and banks up 
the fires so that the flow of force is only passive. Thus 
she proves herself a defender of vitality, a repairer 
of waste, and a balm for hurt minds. Good Princess 
Poppy!" 

Ah, well! it may be wiser to confess here that the 
woman "we" know was ourself, for someone is sure 
to find it out and so withstand us to our face. 

Nevertheless, the morphine tablet, prescribed or ad- 
ministered by the physician, is often a mere labour- 
saving device for the time being, and not infrequently 
proves to have the same effect as sitting on the safety- 
valve. A drug, too, which relieves pain, if persisted 
in, ultimately causes pain. Even novices like our- 
selves know this. 

An eminent Canadian physician writing on this says, 
"Of course some acquire the habit innocently, and 
physicians may be to blame for it, as when post- 
operative conditions are accompanied by prolonged 
pain, or when a patient has what is considered a more 
or less chronic disease . . . - .. The profession must 
always be careful to very guardedly prescribe such 
drugs." 

When by an evil chance a doctor has, himself, be- 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 73 

come an addict he is almost sure to prescribe narcotics 
loosely and extravagantly, and should, accordingly, 
be barred from practice. Apart from the errors he 
may make, such a physician- attracts to himself the 
addicts in the community who want prescriptions or 
drugs in bulk, and we have found it is practically im- 
possible to render a conviction against him under the 
provisions of the Opium and Drugs Act. 

The enactment allows a doctor to prescribe nar- 
cotics for "medicinal purposes," but does not interpret 
these words. The Act has apparently been framed on 
the hypothesis that every physician is a reputable man 
and strictly professional, whereas such is not uni- 
formly the case. 

In this connection, we do not hesitate to say that as 
physicians are granted special privileges, they should 
receive special punishments for violation of the Act. 
When an Information is laid against a registered 
medical practitioner who is believed to be exploiting 
addicts, if he cannot persuade the magistrate to allow 
a withdrawal of the charge, he takes refuge under 
these uninterpreted words, setting up the defence that 
he was treating the addicts with the object of ulti- 
mately effecting a cure by means of "gradual reduc- 
tion" or "ambulatory method" of treatment. 

Reputable physicians would welcome a strict con- 
struction on this Clause by the Federal authorities, 
or some amendment whereby they would be able to 
prescribe legitimately without coming under suspicion 
of nefarious practice. 



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imaEtBmM 



74 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



In Manitoba, under the provisions of the Narcotics 
Act, when a physician prescribes opium or its deriva- 
tives for the purpose of curing a patient from the 
craving for the drag, such physician is required to 
make a physical examination of the patient, and to re- 
port in writing to the specially approved Medical 
Board, the name and address of such patient, together 
with a diagnosis of the case, and the amount and 
nature of the drug prescribed or dispensed in the first 
treatment When the patient leaves his care, such 
physician must report m writing to the Medical Board 
the result of his treatment 

The Whitney law of New York requires that all 
prescriptions given by physicians for "gradual reduc- 
tion" shall be reported to the Commissioner at Albany, 
and gives this official the discretion to deal with any 
physician who appears to be abusing the privilege. 
That some such method should become law in all the 
Canadian provinces seems evident. 

Even with these restrictions, it cannot be claimed 
that the unscrupulous doctor has been prevented from 
prescribing noxious drugs ad libitum. In April of last 
year, in New York City, it was found that thirty 
physicians had formed themselves into a drug ring and 
were writing separately as many as two hundred pre- 
scriptions a day, some of these men doing no other 
practice. The principal drug dispensed was heroin. 
This was obtained through the regular channels at 
$12.00 and $15.00 an ounce, but retailed at from 
$60.00 to $75.00 an ounce through the prescriptions. 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 75 

The investigators found that seventy per cent of 
the addicts were less than twenty-five years old, and 
included a remarkably high percentage of discharged 
sailors and soldiers. 

II. 

If you say these conditions are peculiar to the 
United States, and do not concern us in Canada, you 
speak without advisement. 

From records in our possession— these being known 
to the police-^we have the names of Canadian doc- 
tors who have, until the present, been prescribing, as 
high as 100 grains of cocaine in each prescription, or, 
equal to four hundred quarter-grain tablets, or average 

adult doses. 

In three months, this winter, it was found that a 
certain physician in a Western town, had issued fifty- 
two prescriptions for sixty grains of morphine and 
three thousand grains of cocaine. His extravagance 
is by no means peculiar, several other doctors having 
records approximately high. 

In this same period of three months, one man not 
any considerable distance from where we write, was 
able to get from a drug company, by means of a doc- 
tor's prescription, nearly seven thousand grains of 

opium. 

The doctors claim these prescriptions were given to 
cure the victim on the "gradual reduction" or "ambu- 
latory method," and were without charge. Most of 
us will refuse to credit their claim. Men who are 
"yellow" enough to supply addicts, however much they 



76 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



suffered, with narcotics in such large bulk, ought for 
a certainty to be breaking stones in some jail yard. 

These facts are now reported to the Federal Health 
authorities and one is almost safe in saying that, for 
the future, these physicians may be depended upon to 
co-operate with the Regulations of the Department 
or take the direful consequences — that is to say if 
they have no dealings with those, who truckle in con- 
traband. 

Having in mind the honorable, self-sacrificing 
character of the average medical doctor in Canada, 
one dislikes to show that there are such kittle-kattle in 
the profession, but, contrariwise, because of the de- 
plorable results arising from this wholesale prescribing 
of devilish narcotics, one must, perforce, tell some 
small part of the story. 

After the arrest of the New York doctors, and the 
raid on the drug stores, above referred to, the author- 
ities found it necessary to open a public clinic to supply 
the addicts with small doses of drugs to relieve their 
sufferings and prevent an outbreak of crime. 

On this occasion Mrs. Sarah Mulhal, the Advisory 
Administrator of the Narcotics Bureau, was obliged 
to call fifty nurses to her aid, and five hundred women 
as volunteer workers. 

About this time, Commissioner Copeland of the 
New York Health Department was asked whether it 
was possible to cure the craving for drugs by a sliding 
scale of doses, and replied, "Yes, if we can control 
the supply." 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 77 

It is told in the Literary Digest that when this ques- 
tion was propounded to the Commissioner, the case 
following was submitted to him:— "A" member of the 
Metropolitan Opera Company was under treatment 
for the habit by what is known as 'the reduction 
cure ' In answering the question as to what progress 
had been made, she said that while a year ago she 
was taking 25 grains a day, she was now using 15 
grains. Could such a reduction be legally called a 
treatment for cure of the habit under the law, or 
would the physician and druggist be liable?" 

"That" replied the Commissioner of the Depart- 
ment, "would be a matter for a jury to decide, but as 
IS grains a day is a long way from a cure, I should 
think the physician would be in danger of conviction. 
Such a case would certainly make him liable for arrest. 
The plain intent of the law is that the progress of the 
treatment must be freedom from use of the drug 
within a reasonable time. Many of the so-called 
'treatments by reduction' are violations of the law. 

III. 
In a letter received last November from Dr. James 
A Hamilton, the Commissioner of the Department of 
Correction, New York City, he says, "Persons charged 
with crime and who are known to be drug addicts, 
committed to our institutions by the courts for treat- 
ment to t>e returned to the court for trial and sen- 
tence upon the certification of the Resident Physician 
of the institution, to the effect that the person has 
received the prescribed medical treatment, and that his 



i " i ; ! > 






78 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



physical condition warrants his appearance in court. 
This treatment extends over a period of about 100 
days" These one hundred days, with the drugs con- 
trolled by the physician, seem to be "the reasonable 
time" referred to by Commissioner Copeland. 

It appears difficult, however, to control the drugs 
even on Blackwell's and Riker Islands where the ad- 
dicts are isolated, for Dr. Hamilton further writes, 
"It is absolutely necessary to scrutinize very carefully 
all the mail that comes to the institutions for the in- 
mates, as attempts have been made to smuggle in 
drugs in every conceivable manner, such as between 
the layers of a postcard and inside the flap of an en- 
velope. For many years, it was the privilege of our 
inmates to receive boxes of delicacies from visiting 
friends. This privilege had to be abolished as it was 
found to be a decided menace. In order, however, 
that the inmates may not be deprived of these ex- 
tras, commissaries were established at the various 
institutions at which may be purchased fruit, cakes in 
sealed packages, cigarettes, tooth-paste and a number 
of other articles. These articles are sold at exactly the 
same price as they may be bought for on the outside, 
the profits from the sales being in the custody of trus- 
tees, appointed by the Commissioner of Correction, 
and are used in their discretion for the welfare of the 
inmates, to pay for equipment for athletic games and 
occasionally glass eyes and wooden limbs, or for any- 
thing that could not be properly charged against public 
funds." 



iilMiulisliiifc^ 




Opium pipes, Chinese scales, opium lamps, raw opium— seized 
by Government of Canada. 

—Chapter V, Part II. 




Drugs and smoking appliances seized by the Canadian Govern- 
ment in an effort to stamp out the illicit traffic. 
—Chapter V, Part II. 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 79 



In an immensely valuable book published this month, 
and written by Ernest S. Bishop, M.D., F.A.C.P., of 
New York («The Narcotic Problem" by E. S. Bishop, 
Macmillan Go. of Canada), who is probably the 
greatest living authority on narcotic drug-addiction, 
we find these statements : — "The medical profession as 
a whole has adopted a cynical attitude towards the pos- 
sibility of permanent 'cure/ and towards the efficacy 
of medical treatment which has tended to send the ad- 
dict to quacks and charlatans and various advertised 
remedies." He then tells us that in the cure, three 
broad lines of procedure have been employed. These 
are the so-called "slow-reduction," "sudden with- 
drawal" and "the withdrawal accompanied by the ad- 
ministration of various drugs, such as alkaloids and 
those in the belladonna group." 

Of the first system, he says, "Practically every ad- 
dict has attempted it at one or more times. As a 
method of procedure in some stages and under some 
conditions of addiction treatment slow or gradual re- 
duction has its value. In my opinion, however, all 
other considerations aside, there are very few who are 
possessed of sufficient understanding of narcotic ad- 
dictions and ability in the interpretation of clinical in- 
dications, and have the technical skill required to carry 
it through to a clinically successful culmination. As 
a method of routine or forcible application, it has 
many serious objections as well as potentialities for 
damage to the patient .... 

Prolonged 'withdrawal' without rare technical 



80 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 81 



skill and without unusual, and not commonly available 
environment and conditions of life, means subjecting 
the patient to the continued strain of persistent self- 
denial and self-control in the face of continued suffer- 
ing, discomfort and physical need. It is my opinion 
that this experience has, in many cases, tended to 
deeply impress upon the mind of the patient the so- 
called 'craving' for the drug and has converted many 
a case of simple physical addiction-disease into a more 
or less mental state which may be described as s mor- 
phinomania' or 'narcomania'." 

IV. 

While it is true that a percentage of the physicians 
and pharmacists are culpable in their dealings with 
the traffic and with the addicts themselves, the same 
is true, in a lesser degree, of magistrates, the lapse 
of the latter being largely due to want of knowledge. 

When magistrates, whether lawyers or lay-folk, are 
sworn into office, their knowledge of the drug habit is 
usually very scant and indefinite. They are then 
obliged to administer a law which takes no cognizance 
of the habit other than as a criminal offence. Pres- 
ently, they begin to suspect that it may sometimes be 
a disease; other times, it may be both, still, the Code 
leaves no option ; they must convict or dismiss. Some 
magistrates get around the dilemma by fining the de- 
fendant a sum so merely nominal that it cannot in 
anywise be construed as a fair administration of 
Clause 3 which provides a maximum fine of $500.00, 
or one year's imprisonment, or both fine and imprison- 
ment. 



Only recently, we raised our «yes enquiringly to a 
certain experienced and kind-hearted magistrate who 
had just imposed a fine of $5.00 on a Chinaman guilty 
of a breach of the Opium and Drugs Act. 

With a sidelong look and a knowing grin, he re- 
plied, "Well, you see, Madam? he is really not to 
blame. We British forced the traffic on him .... 
ever so long ago." 

At any rate, no two magistrates seem to have the 
same opinion where fitting the punishment is con- 
cerned. If you want to quarrel with another magis- 
trate, you have only to introduce this topic. 

This may be the fault of the magistrate, but most 
of us are inclined to place it on the Act, in that it 
does not provide for medical examination which 
would help us to arrive at a decision. Neither does 
it provide for a place of incarceration other than the 
jail. In the State of New York, the Boylan Bill which 
was passed in 1914, recognizing that the primary need 
of drug addicts is medical treatment, provides that the 
magistrate may commit these to hospitals. 

It used to be that insane patients were put in jail 
too, or even burned at the stake in order to make them 
good, but we have acquired more enlightened ideas 
in these latter days. It may be that we will get a 
newer viewpoint on this matter of narcomania too. 

Be it understood, however, that we refer only to 
certain of the addicts, who have acquired the habit 
innocently, and not to those ravening wolves who are 
apprehended for trafficking in opiates, and who have 





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82 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



so much of the brute in their system they really ought 
to be walking on all fours, 

V. 

Then, too, it is alleged that some of the magistrates 
have no very definite ideas as to what should be done 
with the illicit drugs which are seized and brought 
into court. The Act provides that the drugs and re- 
ceptacles are to be forfeited and destroyed, the order 
to be carried out by the constable or peace officer who 
executed the search warrant, or by such other person 
as may be thereunto authorized by the convicting 
magistrate. 

However philanthropic or praiseworthy their mo- 
tives, the officers who donate these drugs to a hospital, 
to a government analyst, for experimental purposes, or 
to any other person, should be considered to have 
violated the law. 

By this procedure, contraband drugs of which the 
Government have no record, and on which they have 
received no revenue, go into circulation. 

These drugs should be destroyed as the Act pro- 
vides, and in view of their dangerous nature, it is not 
too much to ask that the magistrate sees to it person- 
ally. Any good court-house keeper who would pre- 
serve an unvexed and gladsome mind, must have a 
care that no poisons are left lying around loosely. 

Having said this, we are conscious that our view 
may be publicly stigmatized as "domestic," "merely 
feminine," and quite unbefitting the dignity of a sti- 
pendiary magistrate, Mr. Publisher, Sirs and Mes- 



DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES 83 

dames, at the thought we are filled with shame and 
confusion of face. 

In London, England, there is a certain furnace in 
which all contraband tobacco and narcotic drugs are 
destroyed. The chimney of this furnace, which is 
never without smoke, is called "The Queen's Pipe." 
As the fuel has been confiscated to the Crown, the 
name is exactly descriptive. This method of destroy- 
ing narcotics is safer than any -other and might be 
advantageously adopted by all Canadian Courts of 
Summary Jurisdiction. Assuredly "The Queen's 
Pipe" is the only one in which opium can be smoked 
with benefit to all concerned. 



SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 85 



CHAPTER IX, 

SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION, 

If you are planning for ten years, plant trees; 

If you are planning for a hundred years, plant men, 

—Chinese saying. 

IF it were possible in justice to this subject to omit 
all reference to drug-addiction among our soldiers, 
we would gladly do so. When we consider the mag- 
nificent self-sacrifice and untold sufferings of the 
hundreds of thousands who fought so nobly on our 
behalf, our hearts are filled with pity, love, and grati- 
tude for these, our soldier-sons. 

But it is not possible, neither would it be wise nor 
kind to omit the data on the subject, for we cannot 
afford to waste our human material, nor allow it to 
destroy other material. 

Having said this, the readers naturally conclude that 
they are being prepared for adverse opinions where 
the soldiers are concerned. Such is not the case. We 
will merely lay before you such data as we have, 
leaving it to you to Weigh the evidence individually. 

It is in order that the case for the prosecution be 
heard first, accordingly we quote from the Literary 
Digest of April 26th, 1919: "The experience of the 
war shows that overstimulation and over-excitement 
resulted in an increase in the use of drugs. In Eng- 
land, it was early necessary to make the controlling 

84 



regulations stricter, and the 'war-period showed many 
addictions to Canada's number of drug victims." 

Turning to England, we find two columns in the 
Daily Chronicle dealing with this matter and the fol- 
lowing sub-heading:— 

"Startling revelations of the growth of the co- 
caine habit among Soldiers." 
"It is stated that since the outbreak of war., co- 
caine has been introduced into this country in the 
form of powder by the Canadian Soldiers/' 
The names and addresses are then given of eight 
dealers who sold drugs to soldiers, the same drugs 
not having been ordered by a regular medical prac- 
titioner. 

On behalf of the Commissioner of Police, Mr. 
Herbert Muskett, prosecutor, said that as the case 
was one of the greatest importance he would make 
some general remarks as the evil had grown to such 
enormous dimensions, that it was necessary steps 
should be taken to check it. 

"The habit," said Mr. Muskett, "appears to have 
been brought here with the Canadian soldiers, and it 
was to be hoped that in the near future the attention 
of the House of Commons would be called to the 
matter so that legislation might be introduced dealing 
with the sale of drugs .. . . the powder was sold 
principally to soldiers and to women of a certain class, 
and was taken like ordinary snuff, producing tem- 
porary exhilaration." 

A representative of the Daily Chronicle, who had 






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86 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



made inquiries in authoritative quarters, said, "The 
traffic in cocaine has already reached the dimensions 
of a big scandal ... . Unhappily, too, the vicious 
craze has spread among soldiers . . . Soldiers have 
been seen literally to crawl in weakness and agony of 
reaction into a shop where the deadly 'snow J might be 
obtained, and to emerge from it re-invigorated for 
an hour or two like new men." 

"The actual distributors are usually women — and 
women of a certain class. These sell it to other women 
and to soldiers. The method of distribution is bor- 
rowed from the counterfeiters — one woman acts as 
'carrier,' and is in possession of a number of boxes 
of the drug, and another undertakes the actual sale 
in boxes . . .The drug, during the last year, has 
already been responsible for one murder. It is now 
known that the unhappy young Canadian, who killed 
a sergeant at Grayshott, was addicted to the use of 
this drug. Another victim, who was a soldier, actually 
tore in two pieces, with his bare hands, a plank in the 
cell in which he was confined . . . The police are 
hampered by this disadvantage, that, while under the 
Defence of the Realm Act, they may now arrest, with- 
out a warrant, any person caught supplying or con- 
niving to supply cocaine to soldiers; civilians may 
purchase it, or be in possession of it, and thus in- 
directly assist the traffic among soldiers without risk 
of punishment." 

In the United States, Dr. Ernest S. Bishop, the ex- 
pert on addiction-diseases, has also something to say 



SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 87 

on this matter. "War itself" he writes, "is always 
productive of narcotic addiction as one of its unfor- 
tunate medical concomitants. The Civil War left in 
its wake opiate addicts, results of necessary emergency 
and other medication. The Spanish War also con- 
tributed to the narcotic addicts. That there are opiate 
addicts resulting from the present world war is a 
known fact. Europe has its problems and in this 
matter we shall not escape ours." 

II. 

The New York Times of April 15th, 1919, states 
that in a report made public the previous day by the 
New York City Parole Commission, it was declared 
that in the first draft for the National Army, eighty 
thousand were drug-addicts who needed medical at- 
tention. "They were all rejected by camp officers" 
the report says, "and worse still, young men deliber- 
ately acquired the drug habit to escape the draft, He 
(Congressman Rainey) has a list of twenty-five 
physicians who were commissioned as Captains and 
Majors who were drug addicts, and also the name of a 
physician so commissioned, who started for France 
with a large amount of narcotics to be dealt out among 
soldiers." 

In Canada, we find that the Editor of The Toronto 
Saturday Night, in 1919, says, "the drug habit has a 
strange hold on our population, and is growing at an 
alarming rate. Toronto has now the unenviable repu- 
tation of being Ontario's headquarters for the illicit 
traffic in 'dope,' and people come to the Queen City 



! 1 .! i ' ... ,.. I ! 







THE BLACK CANDLE 



from all over the country to renew their supplies." 
He then goes on to state that in examining members 
for a certain Ontario battalion for Overseas Service, 
it was discovered that no less than a hundred and fifty 
were "dope" fiends. 

In a letter of December 10th, 1919, a Toronto 
Editor says: "I have talked with various oncers, re- 
turned men, in respect to the dope habit in the army, 
and they state it is more widespread than is generally 
imagined owing to the fact that such drugs as cocaine 
and morphine are very largely used in the hospitals, 
and in most cases, were easily obtainable by the men 
themselves, so that possibly without knowing it thou- 
sands of soldiers, who previous to the war had not 
known what these drugs were like, have become ad- 
dicted to them." * 

The magistrate of one of Canada's large cities 
writes: "We have had a good many returned men who 
are addicted to the. use of drugs and certainly they will 
have to be looked after." 

The Chief Constable of another large Canadian city 
writes, "A number of returned boys who have come 
before our courts for using drugs, place the blame on 
having been wounded during the war, and having had 
drugs given them to relieve their sufferings, which 
in some instances formed a habit. Others I know per- 
sonally were addicted to the habit before enlisting." 

When we come to give the data for the defence we 
find that this statement by the Chief Constable is amply 
borne out by the following letter by one whose opinion 



SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 89 

must be received with very great respect, not only on 
account of his first-hand knowledge as a military 
official-, but also as an official in the Federal Depart- 
ment of Health : — 

"Ottawa, December 17th, 1919. 

"Dsjar Mrs. Murphy, 

I have before me, your letter of December 5th, addressed to 
Dr. Amyot and requesting information in reference to the use 
of habit forming drugs by returned soldiers. 

"During the last two years, and since my return from over- 
seas, while acting as Assistant Director of Medical Services, 
Department of Militia and Defence, I have had much opportunity 
of observing soldiers, and particularly, in reference to the 
conditions about which you require information. 

"Having regard* to this, I may say that no evidence has 
reached my attention which would tend to show that the use 
of habit-forming drugs is more prevalent among those who 
served in the recent war than among the civilian population. 
I am inclined to think that the contrary is the case. A certain 
number of undesirables with the habit already formed or in 
the process of formation, were taken into the Service without 
the habit being detected until after enlistment. It should also 
be borne in mind that, in spite of the hardship of service, the 
vast majority of those on service did not find the use of such 
drugs necessary. This would largely disprove the claim, usually 
fraudulently put up by drug addicts, that war service caused 
their habit. It may be taken for granted that a statement of 
this kind, made by a drug addict, is usually meant to appeal 
to public sympathy and is advanced as an excuse, which may 
mitigate public disproval of his misconduct. 

"The most efficient way in which to correct it is to deal as 
they did in Britain with smugglers and illicit vendors, viz; 
with the utmost severity, in imposing crushing fines and long 
sentences. Drug addicts should also have special provision made 
for their treatment, with special authority given to magistrates 
to commit them, on a diagnosis^ of drug addiction, not neces- 
sarily as criminals, but as requiring" long periods of enforced 
removal from possibilities of getting the drug. 

"Summing up the whole matter, there is no information and 
no statistics in the Department of Militia and Defence that, in 
any way, indicate that returned soldiers were, in any respect, 
more addicted to the use of habit forming drugs than the 
ordinary man on the street and it has not been found necessary 
by the Militia Department to make any special provision for 
the treatment of soldiers who had become addicts. 



''' ■' '.'V'j l » ffl^-iii'l",' tin'! j J ' A' li'.: iril ! 



90 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 91 



"My views in this matter may not coincide with your own 
but I wish frankly to say that they are founded on my own 
personal actual observations, both in the field and in adminis- 
trative duties at headquarters, both in England and Canada, 
and further I have obtained the views of Major-General Fother- 
ingham, the present Director-General of Medical Services in 
Canada and formerly the Assistant-Director of Medical Services 
of the Second Division CE.F. in the field, and am privileged to 
state that his views and observations coincide almost absolutely, 
with those I have given above. 

"Trusting that this may be of some little service to you, I am, 

Sincerely yours, 

D. A. CLARK. 
1 Assistant Deputy Minister. 

One could almost have wished that Dr. Clark had 
declared drug addiction in Canada to be a temporary 
evil resulting from the war, and possibly ending there- 
with. His letter, however, leaves us no illusions. If 
we agree with him, we must hold that the evil is a 
general and national one. 

And this undoubtedly has a basis in fact for, in 
1907, Canadians imported 1,523 ounces of Morphine 
and this amount rose steadily for the seven years be- 
fore the war, and with the exception of a year and a 
half, has continued to rise ever since. The same 
steady, persistent rise in importations occurred an- 
nually in all other narcotics, this rise being altogether 
out of proportion to the rise in population. 

III. 

While war conditions may have aggravated the 

habit, this aggravation was probably not so serious as 

some of us have supposed. The use of narcotics must 

of necessity, be more noticeable in the huge assem- 



blage of soldiers kept under strict surveillance than in 
the private, more guarded lives of civilians. 

A full comprehension of the evil as a national rather 
than a military one, must be productive of the pro- 
f oundest disquietude. A policy of negation and in- 
activity should no longer be tolerated in this Dominion, 
and this not only applies to our Federal and Provin- 
cial Governments, Departments of Health, Police 
Commissions, Welfare Boards and Church Associa- 
tions, but to every organization formed for the pur- 
pose of dealing with human salvage. 

Neither should our course be unstable or inconstant. 
This is a traffic, odious and wicked, which must be 
very closely watched. Unfortunately, the public mem- 
ory is short— one need not be a politician to know this 
— and people forget when even a small measure of re- 
lief has been obtained, but the tan-colored, seldom- 
smiling Oriental does not forget, nor that master-fiend, 
the unscrupulous white trafficker. Unabashed and un- 
dismayed, these are ever ready to resume operations. 

People are not so active in suppressing this evil as 
one might expect, possibly because they do not realize 
its serious nature. Yet, no one, however highly placed, 
can be free from its effects, so wide-spread has the 
habit become. 

Accidents to trains; collisions between motor-cars; 
mistakes in compounding prescriptions ; and scores of 
other casualties may occur through the blunders of 
drug-addicts. Employers may be mulcted for large 
damages under the Compensation Act, and workmen 



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f !i' S i:| >{i ■'■:!, 



! !..,.!,'.':;::.:.,!,, ..'.:< 



92 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 93 



may be killed or injured because of the debility or 
nervousness of "a cokie" who blew out a mine pillar 
or opened the wrong switch, 

It is well known among the police that taxi-cab 
drivers who are desirous of getting young girls in 
their power, are a fruitful source of the dissemination 
of demoralizing drugs. Yet, our daughters use these 
cabs very frequently, and without concern, knowing 
nothing of the reprobate person under whose control 
they have placed themselves. 

In the anti-drug campaign in New York in 1919, 
it was found that among the known drug addicts, 21 
per cent, were employed in trades that had to do with 
transportation. Out of the 20,000 addicts in the city, 
2,700 were examined by Dr. Copeland, the Health 
Commissioner. Those examined included lawyers, 
journalists, clergymen, teachers and directors of large 
business corporations. Two-thirds of the victims had 
trades and professions. Nearly all of the victims 
registered as desirous of being cured. 

When the subject of narcotic addiction is further 
considered, one Is appalled by the loss of human 
material, not only from the economic, but from the 
intellectual and spiritual standpoints. If this waste 
may be retrieved, no matter ho\v arduous the task, 
an incalculable service will have been rendered. No 
nation can flourish or even endure, where a large quota 
of its citizens are affected with drug-addiction disease. 

That any considerable portion of our people 
should become only so much gangrenous matter, is 



especially deplorable in a young country like Canada, 
where the climatic discipline of the north naturally 
makes for dominance and for those sturdier character- 
istics of sobriety and self-control. Assuredly, this is 
a case where, if our right eye offend, as a practical 
curative measure, we must pluck it out. 



ip . . , ,.■;.■ . , ,,„; : , , ! '; -\ 



I -l| \ I- :.:- . ! ': 



CHAPTER X. 



THE CURE. 



No vice so great, but we can kill and 
conquer if we will. — Charles Noel Douglas. 

AWHILE ago we said that magistrates who had 
to deal with drug-addicts as criminals, presently 
found that some were possibly diseased and mere 
clods of flesh who required to be tended and mended 
rather than punished. Writing of this, Dr. Malcolm 
McEachern, the Superintendent of the Vancouver 
General Hospital says, "Undoubtedly drug addic- 
tion is a disease and I do not think it can be called 
a crime, but of course, may lead to crime. Never- 
theless, it is on the same basis as intemperance in 
anything else, though other things may not be as 
serious to the human system." 

Dr. Ernest S. Bishop, of New York says, "The 
one great point to be kept in mind is that narcotic 
addicts are sick; sick of a definite and now demon- 
strable disease . . . Even if it should some day de- 
velop that a serum can be produced against the under- 
lying toxins of addiction-disease — and this is not 
beyond the bounds of possibility — its usefulness and 
application must remain for the present, matters of 
academic speculation/' 

That a toxic condition substance may be set up in 
the blood when not offset by dosage, has been claimed 

94 




Burning opium and pipes at the State House, California. 




Cocoamtt 
containing 
Yenjhee 
medicine. 



Contraband drugs to the value of three-and-a-half million 
dollars which were destroyed by the police at New York. 
—Chapter VII, Part II. 



THE CURE 



95 



by one Adriano Valentia of the Institute Experi- 
mental Pharmacology of the Royal Institute of Pavia, 
who in 1914, developed in dogs the disease of drug 
addiction. He then deprived them of the drugs, and, 
taking serum from them, injected this into normal 
dogs who showed the same distressing symptoms as 
those who had become addicts. It has also been shown 
by Hirschall of Berlin that the serum from addicted 
animals when injected into other animals has made 
them immune to doses of morphine which must have 
otherwise proved fatal. 

We have quoted these authorities at length, because 
it would seem necessary to show that in dealing with 
the scourge, we should understand that it is not wholly 
a crime, and that punishment by fine and imprison- 
ment may be an improper procedure. The strong 
hand may prove, in some instances, to be the wrong 
hand. 

Once I asked a Chinaman if there was a cure for 
the disease, for all Chinamen do not smoke opium, 
as all white men do not drink intoxicants. He said 
there was no cure except by taking relics from the 
altars. Indeed, I have seen this cure in process for 
myself at a joss house they used to have in Van- 
couver, and which they may yet have for all that I 
can say. 

In this place, there was a* serving altar on which 
stood huge vases of pewter and enamel, and over 
which hung banners and peacock feathers. These 
banners, the Chinese explained, were extremely effi- 

4 



96 THE BLACK CANDLE 

cacious in case of opium sickness, and so were carried 
to the sick room whenever required. 

On the serving altar, there is also a rubber stamp 
used to impress the paper taken away by men suffer- 
ing from insomnia. "Debil, him keep China boy not 
sleep," explained the servitor. 

Yes 1 it is quite certain we do not understand these 
people from the Orient, nor what ideas are hid behind 
their dark inscrutable faces, but all of us, however 
owl-eyed, may see pathos in the picture of the hapless 
drug victim— often a mere withered stalk of pain, 
stealing away into the streets with his piece of sacred 
paper trying to make believe that, instead of the pipe, 
this will give sleep to his tortured eyes and still more 
tortured brain. Maybe it does help him too, just as 
the pledge, the amulet, and the vari-colored ribbons 
help some folk of our day and nationality. 

But if the sacred papers failed, and if the China 
boy fell into the death-sickness, his compatriots, if they 
were so-minded, could drag forth the huge dragon 
that crouched, beneath the serving altar, and use it to 
scare away forever, the opium devil and all devils. 

Do you think these Chinese gods are aloof persons 
and beyond the call of lonely lads like Lee Wing, the 
laundry boy; Mah Wah, the dicer; or Ly Wong, the 
pock-faced one who sells ginseng, bean-curds and 
dried squid? Not a bit of it! 

If you will only step behind the serving altar you 
will see the actual altar, with all of the deities seated 
thereon. The chief of these is a vermilion-coloured 



r : h i-IH^./ji'ij.' i pr V "T** 



THE CURE 



97 



god, and he has whiskers that are black and long like 
the tails of horses. 

And when the China boys desire to "make wish" 
to him, that they may be cured of the opium need, they 
ring a bell to wake him out of sleep. Sometimes, he, 
doesn't hear for a little while, or maybe he only wakes 
to quench his thirst with the bowls of yellow tea they 
have set before him as offerings, but usually he listens 
to their prayers, for he is "good, good"— -this high 
vermilion god — "and likes evellybody, allee samee 
Chinee." 

II. 

If the drug habit be a disease, provision should be 
made for its treatment in some form of provincial 
protection for addicts. It is here that the healing 
arm of the Government is required. Its police arm 
is not sufficient -'to exterminate the evil. Mr. Chris. 
H. Newton, the Chief of Police at Winnipeg, de- 
clares that "Punishment by imprisonment or fines is, 
in my experience, of little use and what we need are 
institutions located in every Province so that persons 
unfortunate enough to have become addicted to the 
habit can be properly treated and gradually weaned 
from its use." 

Chief Newton has seen this worked out effectually 
in his own city. This is best set forth in the words 
of Dr. McConnell, the Administrator of the Narcotics 
Act for Manitoba. "Hospitals in their charter" says 
the Administrator, "need not take in drug-addicts, 
because they are rather an expensive proposition to 
handle, and they require male attendants. 



98 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE CURE 



99 



"I have had several addicts come to me and I have 
had them confined in the jail from six weeks to three 
months in order to take the cure. / might also say 
that they asked to do this themselves as they were 
. anxious to get better, and as far as I know, they were 
benefited by it, gaining from ten to forty pounds in 
a few months . . . We have only had one relapse and 
that was a newsy on a train who Was peddling it, 
and had been addicted to it for twelve or fourteen 
years. 

"I had the bad ones sent to the Prison Farm where 
they were able to be out and around in a few days, 
and were able to get plenty of fresh air and good 
food, and become men again ... I am now making 
arrangements with the Winnipeg General Hospital 
for separate wards for both men and women where 
they will be treated and cured in a humane way. This 
ought to take between six or eight weeks, but of 
course, we must expect relapses ... I think that the 
expense of treatment for these patients should be 
borne fifty-fifty by the Provincial and Federal 
Governments." 

In the United States they have provided that any 
person may apply to the Department of Health or to 
a city magistrate to be placed in an institution for 
treatment, instead of waiting to become a convict, or 
go insane. Either of these officials can commit them 
to the workhouse for treatment, and they are released 
only by direction of the medical authorities of the 
institution. 

We might follow this system with advantage in 



Canada. Instead of giving the addicts drugs on the 
reductive system they should have the chance of going 
without medication or committing themselves to cus- 
todial treatment. The "victims" and the deliberate 
wrong-doers would incidentally be made manifest. 

It was found at the workhouse at Blackwell's 
Island, that for the first nine months of 1919, 110 
men and 3 women committed themselves to take the 
treatment. 

From the facts enumerated, it can be easily seen 
that the cure is long and expensive and that the 
Government can deal with this more effectually by 
preventing the spread of the habit and by also abso- 
lutely suppressing the importation of contraband 
drugs. 

III. 

All drugs used in Canada should be procured from 
the Government. What the Government does not 
prohibit, it must monopolize. There should be no 
profits on the products whatsoever. 

If drugs were sold by the retailers on a system of 
triplicate order blanks, one of these going to the 
Federal Government, a complete check could be kept 
on sales, but, however managed, there should be 
a record on every grain from the time it leaves the 
importer till it reaches the ultimate consumer. 

Illicit vendors in drugs should be handled sternly, 
whatever their status, and it would be well for the 
Government to consider whether or not these should 
be given the option of a fine. The profits from the 



ffff i^Hf 'fH|l B'lfi f ; 




100 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE CURE 



101 



traffic are so high that fines are not in any sense de- 
terrent. Besides, these ruthless butchers of men and 
morals are entitled to no more delicate consideration 
than the white-slaver, the train-wrecker, house- 
breaker, or the perpetrator of any other head-long 
crime. 

If, however, the fine stands, as under the present 
provisions of the Opium and Drugs Act, one-half of 
the fine should be given to the informant, not leaving 
this to the discretion of the magistrate. We are per- 
suaded this would help enormously in suppressing 
the unbridled sale of narcotics. An assured moiety 
of the fines would not only prove a great incentive to 
the police, but would become what a secret agent has 
defined as "a part of the regular machinery of 
eliminations." 

IV. 

To prohibit smuggling, this country should be pro- 
tected by international agreement, thus allowing us 
to control the evil, at its source. This has become a 
world problem, and its successful solution demands 
concerted thought and action. Indeed, such an agree- 
ment has been already arrived at and will become 
effective when we conform to its conditions, at the 
present session of the ^Federal Legislature. 
'. Arising out of the Commission at Shanghai in 1908, 
an International Convention was held at the Hague 
in December 1911, and January 1912, Canada agreed 
to ratify this in 1913, but legislative action has pended 

♦Now in force. 



until now. Indeed, 44 out of 46 countries represented, 
agreed to do so, the exceptions being Germany and 
Austria. Article 15 of Chapter IV provided that 
"The Chinese Government reciprocate in the preven- 
tion of the smuggling of opium into China as well 
as into their far eastern colonies and into leased 
territories, the Chinese to do the same in respect to 
other contracting countries/' 

V. 

There should be established Provincial Narcotic 
Committees to deal with all phases of the drug ques- 
tion, but particularly with the after-care of the addicts. 
So far, medical science has been able to do little for 
the drug-habit except to call it "addiction." 

The after-cure should, if possible, include a change 
of residence and companions. Speaking of this, 
Admiral Charles F. Stokes formerly Surgeon-General 
of the United States Navy, said in February 1919, 
"Remedial measures form the smallest part of the 
task; the biggest job comes when the persons are 
taken off the drugs." He advocates that instead of 
sending these immediately back to the world of which 
they have known nothing during the years of ad- 
diction, that they have a place provided where they 
may work at some trade or occupation, and letting 
them gradually get back to the city. Like convicts 
who have been serving long terms, these persons are 
out of touch with the new order of things, and so 
are apt to relapse. 

Yes ! Yes ! One needs a dispassionate and singularly 



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' 



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,-Mvll I ! ' '■ • til I'nj !"J " ' • n 



102 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



serene mind for this task. That poet was right who 
said, 

"It is not easy, dear, 

Working with men, for men are only clay, 
They crumble in the hand or they betray 
And time goes by, but no results appear." 

A second duty of the Provincial Narcotic Commit- 
tee should relate to education. We need an analysis 
of the symptoms of addiction-disease, just as we do 
on alcohol; its effects on the different organs and 
how the appetite should be controlled. 

The boy and girl in the school should be told of its 
tyrannous control over the will, and of the physical 
tortures of drug abandonment, not waiting until they 
have ignorantly become habituates. 

Indeed, widespread education concerning the drug 
peril is an immediate necessity among all classes, 
whether lay or professional. A great physician said 
only the other day, "It is to be hoped that in school 
and college, in pulpit and press, the facts of addiction 
will be presented in their practical existence, stripped 
of spectacularity, a calm, cold presentation of basic 
facts. There is no subject upon which philanthropy 
can better expend its forces than to this end of edu- 
cation as to addiction disease and humane help to 
its sufferers," 



PART II 



CHAPTER I. 



THE BLACK CANDLE. 

G just, subtle and mighty opium .... 

— De Quincey, 

THE Chinese say there are Ten Cannots for those 
who smoke, opium ; — 
"1." He cannot give it up. 

2. He cannot enjoy sleep. 

3. He cannot wait his turn while sharing his pipe 
with his friends. 

4. He cannot rise early. 

5. He cannot be cured when he becomes ill. 

6. He cannot help relatives who are in need. 

7. He cannot enjoy wealth, 

8. He cannot plan anything. 

9. He cannot get credit even when he has been an 
old customer. 

10. He cannot walk any distance." 

An analysis of these "Cannots" show the opium-sot 
to be selfish, slothful, weak, diseased, inefficient, un- 
trustworthy, and emasculated. Better dead, he still 
lives on, till he becomes what the Chinese call "a 
ghost." 

Ben Jonson in Volpone, gives the picture of a man 
in this condition who is on the verge of death from 
narcotic poisoning. One of the characters desires the 

105 



106 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



death of the victim, 
ejaculations. 

How does your patron? 



as may be seen from his 



"Corbaccio. 
Mosca 



Corbaccio. 
Mosca. 

Corbaccio. 

Mosca. 

Corbaccio, 

Mosca. 

Corbaccio. 

Mosca. 



Xa ' . , . . His mouth 

Is ever gaping and his eyelids hang. 
Good. 

A freezing numbness stiffens all his joints, 

And makes the color of his flesh like lead 
Tis good. 

His pulses beat slow and dull. 
Good symptoms still, 
And from his brain .... 

I conceive you: good. 
Flows a cold sweat and a continual rheum 
Forth the resolved corners of his eyes. 
. . . . . . He now hath losMiis feelings and hath 

left to snort: 
You can hardly perceive that he breathes." 

There is a medical name for death from opium, 
but physicians tell us that dissolution is really caused 
by engorgement of the brain. 

In opium poisoning, where a stomach pump is not 
immediately available, the emetic is a tablespoonful 
of mustard in a small tumblerful of warm water/ 
After this is thrown off, the victim should be given 
great draughts of warm water to wash out the 
stomach. Sometimes, the stomach will not respond 
to the emetic as it sleeps as well as the victim. 

In poisoning for laudanum— a simple tincture of 
opium, which strange to relate, is derived from the 
Latin word laudandum 'to be praised'— an overdose 
sometimes acts as an emetic itself. Awhile ago an 
aged man was charged with attempting to commit 
suicide. He told me he drank a very considerable dose 
of laudanum, which only acted as an emetic. Then 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



107 



he tried to hang himself with a rope, which also 
proved unavailing. He is still alive and more happy 
than one could believe. 

'. . . . Among the Chinese priests, we find this 
dictum : — Chih yen pu neng yang sen toi, which being 
interpreted means, "If you eat opium your sons will 
die out in the second generation." 

What greater evil could befall a Chinese family 
than that it should leave no posterity for the worship 
of ancestors? Anyone who would by an act or 
omission contribute to so calamitous a happening 
must be considered worthy of that national punish- 
ment known as ling chih. This punishment while 
killing the evil can hardly be considered as a success- 
ful one, or even an economic measure, in that it killed 
the man also, the method being death by slicing. 
Still, it has this advantage that there is no subsequent 
offence. 

Under these circumstances, it is only natural that 
the Chinaman should prefer teaching the art of "hit- 
ting the pipe" to white "devils," like you and me who 
probably have nlo souls anyway, and certainly no 
ancestors. Besides, what is a fine in dollars when 
compared to the enormous indignity of death beneath 
a slicing machine ? 

Still, no nation in the world has endeavored to rid 
itself of the opium scourge like the Chinese people 
and, on one occasion, President Hsu-Shi-Ch'ang of 
China issued an order for the destruction of twelve 
hundred chests of opium, the value of which was 
fourteen million dollars. This opium belonged to the 



lilllli 



«il^« 1 l|Wii»{rtN!.hHi ' 



-:■ ■ 'li ■ : , M | 



^Imiiss^m 






108 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



109 



Shanghai Opium Combine and was purchased from 
them by the Government. This meant not only a loss j 
in stock, but a loss of millions in revenue, at a time/ 
when China was in financial straits. | 

Following this, China exterminated the cult of the/ 
poppy — their "flower of dreams" — making its growth 
to be an offence against the law. An edict prohibiting 
tobacco and alcohol in America would be in nowise 
comparable, for this was an edict that meant death 
to hundreds of thousands — some say to millions — of 
the Chinese people. An American writing of this 
truly wonderful thing has said : — "This eradication of 
a century-old vice was not put in force through the 
issuing of edicts by the Government alone, but it was 
due to the imperceptible and immense pressure of pub- 
lic opinion — the opinion and belief of millions and 
hundreds of millions of inarticulate Chinese scattered 
throughout the vast distances of China, a force im- 
bued with the simple and definite instinct of right." 

There is no doubt that on this continent there are 
thousands of Chinese of like honesty and sturdiness 
of character, and that if these men were allowed to 
deal with their renegade countrymen, ; much could be 
done to stay the progress of the drug traffic. 

As far as we know, nothing of an educative cam- 
paign has been tried among the trafficking Chinese 
except what is taught them through the rougher 
methods of the courts. Their education might be an 
experiment worth trying. Perhaps, if we explained, 
through interpreters, what our ideals are and how we 
expect them in accepting our hospitality to maintain 



these ideals, it might help. We might also tell them 
that if they are to remain here, we insist on their 
observing our laws, and on their being clean alike in 
body and mind. We must tell them this again and 
Win till they get the ideal— or till they get out Some 
UuW not be amenable, any more than white men 
under similar circumstances, but the majority would. 
If even a quarter of the amount of money expended 
on the detection of crime among the Chinese was ap- 
plied to educating them, the results would be in- 
dubitably better. 

If we through the health departments of the various 
cities allow the Chinamen to swarm in filthy hovels 
and to burrow like rats in cellars, what else can we 
expect but vice unspeakable? 

We have made these men to be pariahs and per- 
petual aliens and, accordingly, they have become to us 
a body of death. -. These pariahs may only be reached 
through the upper class of their own compatriots with 
whom we should strive to co-operate for what has 
been called "preventive justice," in a patient, per- 
sistent and sympathetic manner. 

It is hard to acquire the magnificent perspective of 
Emerson, but it is worth while studying now and then. 
"The carrion in the sun," he says, "will convert itself 
to grass and flowers, and man though in brothels or 
gaols, or on gibbets, is on his way to all that is good 

and true." 

But if you claim that the oriental pedlar, and opium 
, sot are abandoned and irreclaimable— mere black- 
haired beasts in our human jungle— then, it is quite 



<*S»jr|+»5Mii. s.ip^iff t" 1 * * vf r , fj f* -"HI! » '* •• if 



110 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



111 



plain that we should insist on their exclusion from this 
continent Any other course would only be a demon- 
stration of broken-headed inepitude. j 

II. | 

When a Chinaman regularly attends the chandy 
place called the den or opium joint, for the purpoW 
of smoking, he is said by his countrymen to be under 
the spell of the "black earth." 

The more opium he takes, the more he requires or, 
as Virgil has expressed it, Aegrescitque medendo: 
"the disorder increases with the remedy," It is Kipling, 
in one of his stories, who makes an opium addict to 
tell how at the end of his third pipe, the dragons which 
were printed red and black on the cushions, used to 
move about and fight, but by degrees, it took a dozen 
pipes to make them stir. 

This is a condition which gives rise to the true 
vicious circle. In pathology, a vicious circle has been 
defined as a morbid process in which two or more dis- 
orders are so correlated that they reciprocally aggra- 
vate and perpetuate each other. 

Morally, opium bites a man to the heart and festers 
his very soul. "He is a devil-sick young man," said 
one Chinaman recently of another, "and soon his spirit 
be torn, in the hereafter by the demons of opium." 

The phantasmagoria conjured up by opium has been 
described by many writers. De Quincey speaks of 
them as "those trances and profoundest reveries 
which are the crown and consummation of what 
opium can do for human nature." 



Coleridge, himself an addict, writes of trances and 
of spell-bound existence where one passes 

"Through caverns measureless to man 
Down to a sunless sea." 

All are agreed that in opium intoxication there are 
no sublime exaltations, or blowing of soap bubbles; 
no oracular voices out of inner shrines or waves of 
resplendent ether, but only a sleep or phantasm — a 
kind of dual existence — where all is alien and unreal. 

One who is deeply under the thraldom has told me 
how, in each successive indulgence, she passes through 
strange transmutations and across wide lands that have 
no horizons. Sometimes, in the narcotic stupor, 
there comes to her a black sun that expands and con- 
tracts, and the rays of which cause her head to ache 
intolerably. 

On her recovering, she suffers from an appalling 
introversion when the chain of her bondage ceases to 
be anything but golden. 

This must, too, be true about her pain for, as she 
tells the story of it, her voice becomes thin like a fret 
saw and her face seems to shrink as though she were 
ill and very, very old. 

This woman who was a nurse by profession is now 
a wanton by predilection — a pathetic piece of human 
jetsam. Speaking of the woman outcast, it was 
Lecky who described her as "the most mournful and 
awful figure in history." The statement leaves noth- 
ing further to be said. 

Yet, it cannot be claimed that the opium joint was 



_^! ?1 £ .jj-iy^ • 




112 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



113- 



sac y 



responsible for her downfall, or that she had been 
lured thither by : the Mongolians. Having learned the 
habit in the pursuit of her profession, she naturally 
gravitated to the joint. Her case is only one demon- 
stration of the poet's philosophy, 

"Iti tragic life, God wot 
No villain need be. Passions spin the plot " 

III. 

Opium smoking is different from that of tobacco. 
Opium has to be carefully prepared, and numerous 
tools are required. 

There is the shallow tray ' in which is set a small 
glass lamp filled with peanut or olive oil for "cooking 
the wax." This lamp is hooded, thus preventing the 
drafts which would make the flame flare up and 
smoke the opium. 

Also the smoker requires a long steel yenkok, or 
toasting pin, with which to hold the gum or chandu 
over the flame. It is pointed at one end and flat at 
the other. There is also a kind of spoon-headed 
instrument for cleaning out the pipe. 

Other instruments are a pair of scissors for trim- 
ming the wicks in the lamp, a sponge for cooling the 
pipe, and cans of "hop" and oil. 

Lastly, we have the long, flute-like pipe which may 
be of bamboo, ebony or ivory, and one we have 
seen was studded with diamonds. This is the stem, 
smoking pistol, or yen siang through which the de- 
votee of, the drug takes long and deep inhalations, 
blowing the smoke through his nostrils. 



The opium bowl which fits on to the pipe is an 
ellipsoid in shape. 

Nearly every pipe has upon it a small wooden frog 
but Man Yick, an acquaintance of ours, assures us 
that "flog dead samee likee dool nail." 

Opium ready for smoking is usually about the con- 
sistency of black molasses, or of tar. Pedlars call it 
"mud" but the Chinese name for the mixture is pen 
yang. 

When "the black candle" is ready for lighting and 
the smoker has the ying upon him — that is to say the 
mad longing for indulgence— the procedure is like 
this: — 

The smoker holds the needle in the. flame of the lamp 
and when it becomes hot he dips it into the opium or 
wax, and taking up a portion, holds it over the lamp. 
When it makes a bubble, he inserts this into the small 
hole of the earthen bowl with the flat end of the 
needle and presses it down with the pointed end. 

The flame of opium is blue, but the smoke black, 
and the smell thereof is both evil and insinuating. 

An opium "pill" lasts for six or eight puffs. In 
the places attended by persons of leisure who have 
money at their disposal, attendants or "chefs" roll 
the pills and, sometimes, these fellows have been ac- 
cused — I know not how justly — of even "rolling" 
the smokers to the tune of hundreds of dollars. 

Generally speakings the chefs are only paid sufficient 
to purchase the necessary hop for themselves, for 
even chefs are seized with the terrible ying and require 
"the solace" of the drug. 



liliilll 




114 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Among the public, the idea is held that the men 
who take to smoking opium are usually of the beach- 
comber type, scurvy, feckless fellows— a kind of 
devil's crew. 

Once this may have been true, but of late, such is 
not the case. 

An eminent American attorney writing recently of 
this matter said, "Opium smoking among so-called 
'highbrows' in Boston, has been increasing by leaps 
and bounds of recent years, though the Chinese here 
still furnish a large percentage of the 'hoppies*. 

"Society girls and boys have fallen prey to the 
opium pedlars, and the organizations for trapping un~ 
suspecting youths were never so well supplied with 
the deadly poison and funds as they are to-day. 
They do not appeal to the poor man or woman because 
the cost of 'hitting the pipe' is prohibitive for them, 
but in the palatial residences of persons prominent in 
social circles, may be found complete outfits for opium 
smokers. Money is no object to them." 

This attorney who has much to do with addicts and 
pedlars as a State prosecutor says further, "Curiosity 
leads many to accept an invitation to an opium party, 
but once they have taken their turn at the pipe, the 
appetite has been implanted and the road to degrada- 
tion is fast." 

This is only another way of saying that curiosity 
can kill more than cats, and that once a person has 
started on the trail of the poppy the sledding is Tery 
easy and downgrade all the way. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE TRAFFIC IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The drug habit is the most certain road to ruin the perverted 
ingenuity of man has yet devised.— Charles E. Tisdall. 

ON June 30th, 1921, the Bureau of Internal 
Revenue at Washington printed for the fiscal 
year a full report of the sale of narcotic drugs, in the 
United States. The Report is not only of immense 
interest, but of especial note, being the first official 
figures published 'on this matter in the country. 

It is true that in 1918 the Secretary of the Treasury 
appointed a committee to investigate the traffic in 
drugs, and that a year later this committee submitted 
a report of its findings, but the Treasury Department 
did not vouch for the accuracy of the figures given, 
or assume finality for the conclusions arrived at. 
i In the United States the Narcotic Act is a Revenue 
Law, which is administered by the Internal Revenue 
Bureau through the Narcotic Division of the Pro- 
hibition Unit The appropriation for the enforcement 
I of the Narcotic Law for the current year is $750,000. 
In Canada, while the revenue accruing from the 
[traffic is collected by the Customs Department, the 
j Opium and Drugs Act is administered by the Narcotic 
I Division of the Department of Health. 

But to return to the first official figures of the 
; United States, upon examination, we find that for the 

115 







116 THE BLACK CANDLE ; 

fiscal year ending June 30th, 1921, the amounts sold' 
by the registered importers, manufacturers, producers 1 
and compounders were as follows : : 

Opium 508,723 ounces. 

Morphine 164,203 " 

Codeine . 77,345 " 

Dionin 3,170 " 

Other Alkaloids and derivatives ... 4,381 " 

Cocaine 52,827 " 

Coca leaves 1,016,613 " 

It must be borne in mind that these figures refer 
only to taxes on the amounts sold. Not all the quan^i 
tity imported may be manufactured and sold during 
the same year. On the other hand, the quantity sold 
during a certain year, may exceed that which is irn- I 
ported, the tax on products manufactured in trie 
United States, being due when the goods are removed 
from the place of manufacture. 

The revenue collected in taxes at one cent per 
ounce, totalled $137,279.98. Including this amount 
with the taxes collected from manufacturers, prac- 
titioners, and dealers, the receipts for the year totalled 
$1,170,291.32. 

The Bureau of Internal Revenue which collects 
these taxes is not concerned with the value of any 
narcotic drug or preparation imported or manufac- 
tured, and makes no attempt to ascertain the value 
of the products on which the tax must be paid. 

We have not the value of the narcotic drugs im- 
ported for the fiscal year 1921, but the number of 
ounces totalled 5,329,923. 



THE TRAFFIC IN THE U.S. 117 

Without particularising on all the drugs it will be in- 
teresting to note that the countries from which 
America gets her opium supply, and the quantities, 
were set forth and divided after this manner: 

England 101,150 ounces. 

Greece •• 107,375 " 

Switzerland .......••••• // 

Turkey in Europe 137,748 ' 

Turkey in Asia 292,693 

The export of opium from the United States was, 
however, comparatively negligible, amounting in all 
to 7,829 ounces. Over half of this amount went to 
two countries, Mexico receiving 1,520 and Peru 3,143 

ounces. 

These figures-, here quoted, would not seem to in- 
clude all the amounts exported, for writing in April, 
1922, Lenna Lowe Yost, the National W.C.T.U. 
Legislative Representative at Washington has said, 
"There are evidences to-day, we are informed by 
missionaries, travellers and newspaper correspondents, 
that the situation as relates to drugs, especially in 
China is alarming. Statistics show that the deadly 
habit of drug-taking is on the increase, and that there 
is good reason for alarm is seen in customs reports 
in this country which shows that within the short 
period of five months enough morphine and opium 
were shipped from the one port of Seattle to give a 
dose to each of the 400,000,000 men, women and 
children in China." 

Again, turning our attention for a moment to the 



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118 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Report of this special committee, we find that allowing 
one grain as the average dose of opium, the amount 
consumed in the Republic, per annum, was sufficient 
to furnish thirty-six doses for every man, woman 
and child. 

In this consumption America leads the world. Com- 
pared with her, Austria uses less than one grain, Italy 
one, Germany two, Portugal two-and-a-half, France 
three, and Holland three-and-a-half. 

Assuredly this was a startling discovery, but still 
more startling, when we consider that this computa- 
tion only deals with the drugs that were legitimate 
importations. Although there are no exact means of 
computing the illicit importations, these are calculated 
by the committee as being about equal in quantity to, 
those which pass through the Department of Internal' 
Revenue. In other words, the amount consumed per 
annum should be actually doubled, thus allowing 
seventy-two doses for every man, woman and child 
Now, the population of the United States is about 
107,000,000 persons. 

Only 10% of the drugs legitimately imported are 
used for medicinal purposes, the other 90% 'being con- 
sumed for the satisfaction of addiction. 

From the information received, the committee con- 
cluded that the total number of addicts probably ex- 
ceeded one million, although these have been computed 
by investigators to be as high as four millions. 

But allowing one million to he the correct number 
the committee calculated that this number represented 
^50,000 unemployed persons which, at a conservative 



THE TRAFFIC IN THE U.S. 119 

estimate, would represent the loss of $150,000,000 
annually in wages. 

These figures do not include the cost of the drugs, 
nor the cost to the municipalities or states in the sup- 
pression and punishment of crime; the care of those 
who become a charge upon the community, nor the 
cost to individuals who suffer through theft and 
burglary. 

It has been noted above that the numbers of addicts 
are not exactly known, chiefly for the reason that 
those in higher social classes cannot be counted. These 
have money to purchase drugs and consequently are 
not obliged to commit crime in order to obtain the 
requisite sums. As a general thing, these have not 
learned the habit from bad associations, but through 
doctors and nurses, and so are seldom known to the 
police. 

In the state of California, the Board of Pharmacy, 
in one of their reports has this to say on the subject: 
"In many instances, these unfortunates are members 
of some of the best families in the State, but have 
become addicted to the use of narcotics, not through 
their own desire, but through the carelessness of their 
family physician in prescribing narcotics, for such a 
patient as might have been afflicted with some bron- 
chial, rheumatic or neuralgic affection. The patient 
having received relief from the narcotic, unwittingly 
becomes addicted to its use." 

Wishing to know whether the drug habit was 
spreading in the United States, Canada and England, 
we, personally, despatched some hundreds of letters 




120 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



to persons in high authority for information on this -J 
matter. With four exceptions, all were agreed that the i 
traffic in opiates was growing. We shall quote only the 
reply of Mrs. Sarah Mulhall, First Deputy Commis- .1 
sioner* Department of Narcotic Drug .Control, State; 
of New York : "Drug addiction is a growing menace ;| 
that can no longer be ignored. In New York State 
alone, there are 38,000 officially registered addicts, 
and many thousands who are not registered." 

Several of the replies give credit to the excellent - 
work done by Colonel L. G. Nutt, head of the Nar- 
cotic Forces at Washington, but claim that he is short- 
forced in agents. 

To Dr. James Hamilton of New York, a splendid 
, crusader against the drug traffic, we are indebted for 
the following quotation from Dr. Livingston S. 
Hinckley: "The extent to which drug addiction has. 
spread over the land is beyond belief. The youth, 
curious as to its effects, is offered a pinch of heroin, 
morphine or cocaine and, with incredible rapidity, he 
finds himself in the clutches of a habit, and held as 
stubbornly as a devil-fish envelopes its victim with 
its tentacles." 

The special committee, above referred to, also as- 
certained that drug addiction did not preponderate 
among the females, as was generally believed, but was 
about equally prevalent in both sexes. "Women," 
says a writer on the subject, "last longer at the Black 
Smoke," but he does not tell us the reason. 

But, after all, however accurate the figures or illu- 
minating the data, the writer or reader, to comprehend 



THE TRAFFIC IN THE U.S. 121 

aright their meaning must stop awhile and look with 
the mind's eye upon the drug users themselves— the 
hundreds and hundreds of thousands, who pass before 
us in long nocking lines to which there seems no end. 

Never will there be a like procession till the dead 
arise on Judgment Day. 

These are they who die by what they live upon. 

This might be the dragon of which Kipling wrote 
in The Gate of the Hundred 'Sorrows. This might 
be "the accursed crocodile" of De Quincey's narcotian 
dream with its abominable head and multitudinous 

leering eyes. # 

If you look more closely, you may recognize those 
whom you have known for years as semi-invalids, or 
persons who had "moods," but you never connected 
their vagaries with the baleful influences of "the 

drug." . 

Some are men and women of rank and of high 
principle— proud persons, who would hide as closely 
as possible the secret of their grievous thralldom. 

Others with an appetite for shame, are imbruted 
and vicious; lewd persons untaught in providence, 
patience or abstinence. 

Some are young, hard and scrupleless. No, no, not 
young! Once an opium-eater said "we are all old; 
hundreds of years old." 

Quite a few of these myriads are called "opium 
devils" by their own folk of the Orient who descry 
the evil. Look into their tawny eyes ! Listen to their 
high sing-song voices! "Hi-yah! You my little stay- 






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122 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Hi-yah! You only gel for me. Plented 



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at-home, 
plesents." 

Here are men of all colors and races; shuffle-gaited,! 
foundered fellows, who have started on a downward j 
course from which, to most of them there is no retreatl 
Here, too, are battalions of black men who, fromj 
likely lads, have become derelict in body and soul; 
These are the irredeemables— abandoned, dangerous] 
men who are more than a match for justice. 

If you look longer upon these scenes of ignominy <, 
and shame, it will be to marvel at the numbers who| 
suffer and who are palpably insane. Here are women 
with pain-smirched faces and senile bodies full of 
festering sores. Others who are brain-sick, stare upon 
you with ape-like expression or glare, and gnash and . 
gibber. " ■ 

The talk? Where is the pen that could set it down, 
or dare to set it down^-this babble-talk of incontinent 
tongues—these hideous cursings of guttural throats, ; 
the direful pleadings, the self recriminations, or worse 
than all, the hard, soul-blasting and horrific laughter. 

Yes! let us say it over again— you and I— these are 
they who die by what they live upon. 

Never will there be a like procession till the dead 
arise on Judgment Day. 



CHAPTER III. 

YOUNG ADDICTS. 

Give me the little children, 

Ye rich, ye good, ye wise, 
And let the busy world spin round, 
While ya shut your idle eyes; 
; And your judges shall have work, 

And your lawyers wag the tongue 
And the jailers and policemen 
Shall be fathers to the young. . 

j —Charles MacKay. 

Who is to blame that the lambs, the little ewe lambs, have 
been caught upon the brambles ?— Jane Addams. 

A "child," under the federal statutes, means a boy 
or girl under sixteen years of age. "Under cer- 
tain provincial statutes for the protection of children, a 
child is defined as one actually or apparently under 
the age of eighteen. 

Most people will say, "There is practically no ad- 
diction among children/' meaning thereby 'children' 
under the 'teen age. Even the children's aid so- 
cieties are profoundly ignorant on the subject until 
such a time as the police inaugurate a "clean up" cam- 
paign with its attendant education. 

In this discussion, we shall not confine ourselves 
to any age, taking in both children and youths, and to 
begin with will ask ourselves whether addiction exists 
among these to any marked extent. 

In consulting the authorities on the subject, one of 
the most reliable reports is that given of the New York 

123 




1 :■!,.'■ r ..i.:,. w,\ >;,' ■';">>: 





124 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



YOUNG ADDICTS 



125 



State Clinic at which : three thousand persons were 
treated. 

These persons were divided into age groups as 
follows; — 

908 between 15 and 19 years, 

927 between 20 and 25 years, 

711 between 26 and 30 years, •■'■-; 

523 between 31 and 40 years, 

133 41 years, or over. 

Commenting on these groups, Dr. R. S. Copeland, 
the Commissioner of the State, says, "To my mind, 
the most startling thing about these figures is that the 
large majority of the patients are under twenty-five 
years of age, and nearly one-third are not out of their 
'teens. Our patients are just misguided and unfor- 
tunate boys and girls— mere children. That more 
persons past the age of forty do not appear means 
that the addict dies young." 

In the same State, Cornelius F. Collins, Justice of 
the Court of Special Sessions, places the large number 
of addicts between seventeen and twenty-two. He 
says, "At least one-tenth of the whole business of the 
Court of Special Sessions of New York County is ! 
made up of drug addicts . . . This is such a horrible ; 
situation that it brought home to all of us the absolute 
necessity f P r the doing of something which meant 
business in the attempt to control this evil We men / 
throughout the State who daily see the procession of , 
these pale youths, victims of the drug habit, may be ".': 
said to be men who are not unduly worked up over < 



anything. We are somewhat like an undertaker, 
inured to the corpse. The ordinary proceedings in a 
criminal court, while calling for some emotion, do 
not excite us, yet, nevertheless, this drug situation 
shocks us, trained and experienced as we are in the 
performance of our duty, and arouses all to the neces- 
sity for action of some kind." 

Sarah Graham-Mulhall the Deputy Commissioner 
of New York speaks of "hundreds of addict babies 
born in the course of a year of addict mothers, and 
who rarely live but a few days." She also declares 
that the supplying of narcotic drugs is producing a 
crop of criminals, defectives, tubercular victims, im- 
moral persons and incompetents. Out of every one 
thousand youths who were examined for enlistment in 
the American Navy, five hundred are rejected because 
of physical unfitness. This evil, she says is spreading 
while the general public is in ignorance of the 
situation. 

Dr. James Hamilton of New York says, "It is rare 
to come into contact with young men between sixteen 
and twenty-one. years of age who are confirmed alco- 
holics. Compare this with narcotic addicts. The 
general rule is that the addiction is present mainly in 
youths from sixteen to twenty-one. This is really the 
development age, and boys and girls are forever 
wrecked in this period." 

In New York City, boys are being arrested for 
peddling morphine in the schools. 

Word from Seattle says, "there are White Cross 




126 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



YOUNG ADDICTS 



127 



! i! I 



officials who are doing nothing else but watching high- ' 
schools for the dope pedlar." - 

A despatch from the same city says that there are 
between five and ten thousand users of opium in | 
some form or another, or approximately one person 
in every fifty. Canon Bliss, the head of the White 
Cross Society there, states that "snow" (cocaine) 
parties are held regularly among the high school stu- 
dents. The Rev. M. R. Ely of Seattle says, "Let the f 
people see the foul, slimy, poisonous thing that is 
laying its tentacles upon the youth of our land, suck- 
ing away their very life's blood. It must have the 
young boys and girls within its blood-sucking arms. 
It cannot thrive alone on the dried, shrivelled and 
cadaverous habitue, who is fast tottering to the grave." 1 

A case which is typical of many homes in Seattle 
and other cities throughout the United States and 
Canada, is also related in a recent despatch. It tells of 
a case in the police court where the mother of a 
twenty-six year old son had caused his arrest. She 
was a widow and had been reduced to maintaining 
herself by scrubbing and washing. The previous 
night she, on her return home, found a twenty-pound 
sack of sugar she had purchased, had been sold for 
"a shot" of morphine. 

She informed the court that everything of value, 
even to crockery had been taken by her son, and she 
feared he would call in a second-hand man and sell the 
remainder of her furniture. This young man is a 
university graduate, but his craving for drug content, 



born at a cabaret party, had reduced his mother to 
penury and himself to a moral and physical wreck. 

The State Board of Pharmacy, California, reports 
that children are supplied with morphine and cocaine 
in quantities as small as ten cents' worth, by pedlars. 
In New York, drugs have been made into candy 
arid sold to school children. 

In Westfield, Massachusetts, it was found that 
among the Polish families which came from the coal- 
mining regions of Pennsylvania, that ether addiction 
was prevalent. We received the following informa- 
tion in a letter from an official in that place: — 'These 
people evidently drink ether straight, as one of the 
children showed us recently by pouring water into a 
glass, how much ether she would drink, and how much 
her mother used. There have been three cases among 
the children in school in which the drinking of ether 
furnished a pleasurable sensation." 

II. 

Jane Addams tells of a gang of boys in Chicago 
aged from thirteen to seventeen who practically lived 
a life of vagrancy. All had become addicted to the 
cocaine habit. A mother who became terrified over 
the condition of her thirteen-year old — one of the 
gang — brought him to Hull House, and as she rocked 
herself in a chair, holding the unconscious lad in her 
arms, she said despairingly, "I have seen them go with 
drink, and eat the hideous opium but I never knew 
anything like this." The boy was hideously emaciated 
and his mind was almost a blank. 
5 



128 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



YOUNG ADDICTS 



129 



i 



The boys had learned the habit from a colored maris 
who was the agent of a drug store and who gave themtj 
samples in order that they might acquire the craving.] 
Presently, they were hopelessly addicted and "swiped-'^ 
junk to supply themselves with the drug. , 

"The desire to dream dreams and see visions," con-j 
tinues Miss Addams, "plays an important part wittH 
boys who habitually use cocaine. I recall a small hutl 
used by boys for this purpose. They washed dishesj 
in a neighboring restaurant, and as soon as they haclli 
earned a few cents they invested in cocaine which they, J 
kept pinned beneath their suspenders. When theyl 
had accumulated enough for a real debauch they went J 
to this hut and for several days were dead to the out-r| 
side world. One boy told me that in his dreams h&J 
had seen large rooms paved with gold and silver | 
money, the walls were papered with greenbacks, and| 
that he took away in buckets all he could carry." 

"Bert Ford in The Boston American, writing of | 
drug-intoxication in Boston says, "The 'mules' and] 
'joy shots' are among the most vicious elements in thei 
plague. Thousands of recruits to the great and grow- ? 
ing army of drug addicts are won by the joy-shot ;| 
route. It is by this means that our boys and giris in 'i 
their 'teens, and many adults are initiated. Evil com^j 
panions tempt them to try morphine or cocaine for j 
the fun of it. Prompted by jest, ridicule or curiosity,;! 
they take their first 'jab* or 'sniff,' which the gentry j 
have given the camouflaged title of 'joy shot' and] 
before they realize it, they are slaves," 

In Vancouver, drugs are being used in a wholesale i 



manner by boys and girls from fifteen to eighteen 
years of age. Mr. H. H. Stevens, M.P., states that 
scores of these children are ruined annually* ' ." , • 

Another citizen says, "Before I became a member 
of an investigation committee I would not believe the 
terrible stories of drug trafficking as told by the press. 
Since I have spoken to child addicts, and heard the 
dreadful stories from their own lips, I can only com- 
pare the sufferings they describe with the horrible 
tortures depicted by Gustave Dore, in his famous pic- 
tures of the torture of the damned." 

Dr. Procter of British Columbia, in a speech de- 
livered recently in that Province, said, "I know of one 
cabaret in this province where, only a short time ago, 
thirty couples were dancing on the floor and of those 
thirty couples only four were free from the drug 
habit. In that same cabaret, in the washroom, ten 
boys were at the same time seen taking dope." 

In the hearing of charges against juveniles, in the 
police courts, for breaches of the Opium and Drugs 
Act, magistrates have suspended sentences, so that the 
children could be taken away from their bad com- 
panions and removed to places for healing and for a 
new chance in life. 

We think much of the poet who said, 

"I am not sure if I knew the truth, 

What his case or crime might be; 
I only know he pleaded youth ... 
A beautiful, golden plea." 

In Windsor, Ontario, the ages of young addicts 
are given as between seventeen and twenty, 



rf |#!!^li?jl|i|^sili^l|^Sj!|^S|^. 



't"I 



130 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



YOUNG ADDICTS 



131 






I 



I 



Saskatoon, Calgary, Montreal, and other Canadian j 
cities, have their ever-growing quota of 'teen age) 
drug-slaves, forever "maimed for virtue." ■.?■■ 

One Canadian girl boasted that she gets $25,005 
commission for every boy and girl she initiated into* 
the drug habit. It is a commission soon repaid, for 
the victims always find the money for the daily dope. 
They cannot do without it. 

In one bank, four young bank clerks were found to 
be cocaine-fiends and, doubtless, similar conditions 
exist in other financial institutions. 

Personally, I have found that a number of the 
younger girls who are arrested for vagrancy are also 
addicts. They do not always tell this — indeed, they 
do not if they can adequately restrain their craving— 
but when they are incarcerated for any length of time, 
they tell the other girls about it, and advise these to 
make a start also. 

One girl addict of sixteen who was taken into cus^ 
tody as a neglected child, told in court that she had 
inherited fourteen hundred dollars in cash, all of 
which she spent in three days* chiefly on clothes arid 
shoddy jewelry. Presently, even her fine clothes van- 
ished away and she was in a state of penury when 
apprehended. 

One of the appalling things which has developed 
lately is the discovery that the growing youths in the 
small sized villages and towns are not free from the 
machinations of the drug ring, pedlars — or birds' 
nesters, so to say — going out from the large centres 
to introduce their nefarious wares. Besides, it has 



been shown that ninety-two per cent, of the boys and 
girls come to the cities to earn their livelihood, at 
some time or another, and have to face the conditions 
caused by the activities of the drug traffickers. Speak- 
ing of this, Charles E. Royal said lately, "Living in 
the country will not save the boys and girls. Breeding 
and education is no insurance. We have found as we 
get further and further into this matter that the evil 
is even more wide-spread in British Columbia, and 
all over the Dominion than we had feared, and it will 
take the combined efforts of us all, the city and the 
country, to stamp it out." 

That was a wise writer who said, "Meet is it that 
the old help the young, even as they in their day were 
holpen." 

III. 

In dealing with the traffic in its relation to children, 
it seems hardly necessary to say that prevention should 
be our chief care. This statement, while plainly 
trite is, nevertheless, terribly unheeded. Parents sel- 
dom suspect their own children, or have it hidden 
somewhere in the back of their heads, that the children 
are able to take care of themselves, just as if an un- 
sophisticated child had any chance whatever against 
the machinations of the rascally drug booster with his 
specious and amiable manners — well, about as much 
chance as a school of minnows would have against a 
shark. Young folk, or for that matter, many adults 
do not even know the slang or jargon used by addicts 
and may have acquired the vicious appetite for drugs 
before they realize it. 



liHJ^tatiliifml! 



132 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Under the caption "The Ring of Death" a writer in 
the Toronto World says, "For your very life, never 
accept 'medicine' from anyone, particularly in a pow- 
der form which can be used by snuffing up the nose, 
unless you have first assured yourself of its harmless 
nature, its uses, and whether it is of a habit-forming 
propensity. It is better to go to the nearest drug- 
store and "buy some recognized proprietary medicine, 
than to run the risk of ruining your life through care- 
lessness. Remember that to experiment with drugs 
is infinitely worse than to flirt with any other social 
vice; there is no half-way stop in the drug game." 
• Speaking of the necessity of advising young people 
how to meet the advances of the drug booster, Dr. 
Underhill, a medical Health officer in Canada said in 
a public address, "There is no doubt that young men 
who formerly carried a flask to dances and parties are 
now carrying morphine, heroin, or cocaine and in- 
ducing girls to take it from them. They do it in a 
spirit of bravado, if you like, but some I am sorry to 
say, do it for far worse motives. I have told my girls 
to slap anyone in the face who offers them drugs, and 
then to telephone for me. I have told my boys to 
knock them down no matter where it Is. If it is in 
a drawing-room in the best circles, or anywhere in 
public or private, create a scandal so that the thing 
will be brought into the open." 

There is no doubt that altogether too much leisure 
is allowed to our young people, and that they feel 
aggrieved unless all of their evenings and many of 
their days are filled by pleasures, which are often only 



YOUNG ADDICTS 



133 



disguised vices. Those were fine ringing words 
uttered by Thomas A. Edison recently, on the occasion 
of his seventy-fifth birthday; "I have never had time, 
not even five minutes, to be tempted to do anything 
against the moral law, the civil law, or any law what- 
ever. If I were to hazard a guess as to what young 
people should do to avoid temptation, it would be to 
get a job and work at it so hard that temptation would 
not exist for them." 

Besides, very many young people know nothing of 
religion or ethics, and are as frankly pagan as the 
Saxon youth whom Augustine saw in the forum at 
Rome so many centuries ago. They know little or 
nothing of restraint, or of their duty to others. 
Generally speaking, I have found in my work as a 
police magistrate and as a judge of the juvenile court, 
that Catholic children are better instructed in spiritual 
matters and show more resistance under the stress of 
temptation. Being a Protestant, my statement should 
be received without bias. This is probably owing to 
religion being taught in their schools. 

One cannot leave this subject without pointing out 
to parents, that one of the primary causes for the 
downfall of girls is their lack of chaperonage. Girls 
should not be allowed away from home, at places of 
entertainment Without the company of a responsible 
person — yes, "a duenna," if you wish to call her such. 
Neither should parents, under any circumstances, be 
satisfied with the '- statement that their daughter is 
spending the night with "a girl friend." They should 
be absolutely satisfied, not only to the correctness of 



134 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



this but as to the character of the friend. If Messrs. 
the Publishers would not delete it as mere redun- 
dancy, we would set this statement down a second 
time for some pithless, lazy-minded mothers who are 
not even half-way wise. 

And while on the subject we venture to point out 
to parents the advisability of keeping the young miss 
who has a penchant for "joy riding," under lock and 
key, if need be. 

Every city, and most towns, are cursed with taxi- 
drivers or with dissolute youths in motor cars who 
drive up to the pavements and offer free rides to girls 
and Women. The majority of these men are p.edlars 
of drugs, to say nothing of being lascivious lechers. 
The Registry of vital statistics in the Province of 
Alberta shows the profession of the fathers of the 
great majority of illegitimate children as that of taxi- 
driver. It is not unlikely that this is the case in other 
of the Provinces of Canada, and in the* States of the 
Union. 

A speaker at a meeting of the Trades and Labor 
Council in one of our Canadian cities said recently, 
"When I am returning from, my work in the early 
morning hours, it is not uncommon to see young girls 
from fourteen years of age and upward, under the in- 
fluence of liquor and drugs. They ride around in 
automobiles and we know they haven't the price. 
Why does the city council and the police allow this 
sort of thing to go on? If I were a police commis- 
sioner, and there was another on the board of the 



YOUNG ADDICTS 



135 



same mind, this condition would not exist for a 
minute." 

Unfortunately, in Canada anyway, the police have 
not the authority, for .searching motor cars, a motor 
vehicle not constituting "a public place" within the 
meaning of the Criminal Code. Action, however, is 
being taken to this end, and it is plainly obvious that 
it is long overdue. 



• '.;: . |. '■ 



I 1 Jll 



ISMlls iUMhiBSl I :* I IB !::ii;!i WHIM i?::B Bsi«:r!t:lHiMt: lf*«]il! 



|f™ 






CHAPTER IV. 



THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA. 
Our interest's on the dangerous edge of things.— Browning, 

AWHILE ago we said that America led the world 
in the narcotic drug traffic. This is quite true, 
but only during the past two years, for in 1919, be- 
fore the Canadian Government recognized the neces- 
sity of taking immediate and drastic steps to remedy 
the condition, Canada held that direful distinction, 
if we will compute the population of this Dominion 
as thirteen times less than that of the United States. 

The legitimate importations in narcotics for 1920 
were reduced, in some instances, from 75% to 25% as 
against the previous year. This was due in a large 
measure to the establishing of the licensing system. 

But, in spite of their bold and determined effort to 
grapple with the illicit or unlicensed traffic, and in 
spite of their large seizures of contraband narcotics, 
the Government have acknowledged that it is actually 
on the increase. The Department of Health says it 
would astound the people in this country, and the 
authorities in many towns and cities if the conditions 
as they exist were brought to light. 

Indeed the unlicensed traffic has gained such a foot- 
hold in Canada that it has become most alarming. 
In one Western inland city with about thirty thousand 
of a population, the federal police found upon in- 

136 



THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 137 

vestigation that there were hundreds of young men 
and women, many of them not out of their teens, who 
were addicted to the drug habit. 

This prairie town, which is typical of many others 
in the Dominion, would have indignantly denied this 
charge and there is no doubt the police, clergy, teachers 
and parents, not looking for addiction and not know- 
ing Jhe symptoms, would have said "Impossible ! We 
do not know of any drug users, or not more than three 
or four." 

Yet, before the federal police left this town they 
laid evidence before the local authorities which led to 
the conviction of nearly fifty persons, most of them 
pedlars. 

The trouble in most cities appears to be that the 
police are untrained in the work, and, in some few 
instances, actually in league with the traffickers, 
thereby affording them a certain amount of indirect 
protection. 

It is the opinion of the Government officials that this 
underground traffic continues to flourish in spite of 
the efforts which are being made by the Royal Cana- 
dian Mounted Police, and by the provincial and muni- 
cipal police by reason of the fact that there are 
enormous quantities of these drugs available in 
European countries. 

In these countries, the price of narcotics, at the 
present time, in the open market, for legitimate pur- 
poses, is lower than before the war. The reason for 
this is not plainly apparent, but it is believed to be 
due, in some extent, to the measures which have been 






138 THE BLACK CANDLE 

T k A b L &e Vafi0US countries . ^o are signatories 
to the Op.ua Convention, in confining the use of 
narcotics to medicinal purposes. 

It is also of startling significance that most of these 
shipments of drugs, which are finding their way into 
Canada through illicit channels, either originate in 
•jermany or Japan. 

For the twelve months ending March 31st, 1922, the 
™ aI Government P rosecute d. under the provisions 
of the Opium and Drugs Act, twenty-three doctors 
eleven druggists, four veterinary surgeons, one hun- 
dred and sixty-five illicit dealers, and six hundred and 
thirty-four Chinamen, making a total of eight hun- 
dred and thirty-five convictions. The fines imposed 
amo Unted to $127,947.00. These figures do not in- 
clude provincial and municipal convictions 

JS^ ««^ Pal , drUg conv;ctions for ' Vancouver 

29?f 1? « V' ^ 1921 ' haviDg ^P 611 fr °- 
&s in 1918. It is expected the convictions for 1922 

will pass the one thousand mark. 

By comparing these figures with those of the 
Amencan cities on the Pacific Coast, it will be seen 

3 % SPI S ° f their greater **&«<*, Vancouver 
leads San Francisco, Seattle and Los Angeles In- 
deed with the exception of New York, and possibly 
Chicago, Vancouver leads all of the way. 

Commenting, on these convictions, a western editor 
says, Some with the aid of purchased legal skill went 
scot free on pettifogging technicalities. A few of 
them went to jail, for the most part for pitifully in- 
sufficient periods. The vast majority of them were 



t 



HE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 139 



levied for a contribution to the city treasury in the 
form of a fine. All of them, in due course, became 
free to commit the same sin against society." 

While undoubtedly seaport cities, like Vancouver 
and Montreal, have a greater incidence than the cities 
like Toronto and Winnipeg, still the difference is not 
as much as one might expect. 

The Kiwanis Club of Vancouver, in the report of 
its medical sub-committee, has this to say about the 
matter : "It is the general belief of observers that the 
habit of drug addiction has been steadily on the in- 
crease, in most civilized countries, especially during 
the last ten years. Vancouver and British Columbia 
have been no exception and the drug habit has un- 
doubtedly been on the increase here as in other places. 
There are no reliable statistics available to indicate 
the actual increase, but the opinions of police author- 
ities and other reliable observers is that the number of 
drug addicts is gradually increasing in Vancouver. 

"In 1918, the late Chief of Police McLennan, who 
was brutally murdered by a drug-fiend, called attention 
to the prevalence of the drug habit in this city which 
he stated was then becoming alarming. The police 
authorities claim that although the drug habit has 
been growing here, it has certainly not been growing 
any more rapidly than in other cities proportionately 
to population, but that greater prominence has been 
given to Vancouver on account of the publicity given 
to iS the subject in the daily press, and also on account 
of the great activity and success of the police depart- 
ment in prosecuting drug traffickers and seizing 
drugs." 



140 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



In this contention, Vancouver is probably corrett, i 
especially when one considers the report of the federal I 
officers concerning the prairie town to which reference J 
has been already made. « 

It is generally held that breaches of the opium and 
liquor laws are proportionately more frequent in the . 
cities than in the country. It is on this assumption ; 
that the special American Committee compute the 
numbers of their addicts, although they state that in 
the rural districts or smaller cities little or no attention 
has been given to this subject, and where decreases are 
reported, it is quite possible that the opinions ex- 
pressed by the officials are at variance with the con- 
ditions as they actually exist. 

If it could be shown that physicians, druggists 
veterinarians and dentists who are responsible for a 
vast amount of the traffic were more honorable and 
less avaricious in the country districts than in the city 
we might assume that New York was more deeply, 
narcotised, proportionately, than the smaller places in 
Texas or Idaho, but such is not the case. The func- 
tioning of the Liquor Act in which prescriptions are 
freely distributed shows— in Canada anyway— that 
exactly the opposite condition prevails. In the Pro- 
vince of Ontario, which is thickly populated, for the ' 
year 1920, only 5% of the physicians wrote out their 
full quota of fifty prescriptions, while in Alberta 
where the population is less than one person to the 
square mile, 75;% of the physicians wrote over 75 pre- 
scriptions per month. 

It is well known by those who study the subject that 



n HE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 141 

drug runners are pushing out into the rural districts 
where there is comparatively little police supervision 
and where they can sell out their whole stock of con- 
traband drugs to coal-miners, lumbermen, railway 
navvies, and even to the threshermen. It was also 
found that among those who took advantage of the 
harvest excursions from East and West to the Prairie 
Provinces were a number of addicts and pedlars. 

In the cities too, the methods are changing, the 
illicit traffic being carried on in the highways by 
pedlars and taxi-drivers rather than in opium joints. 
In Vancouver, in the year 1916, there were 59 persons 
convicted of keeping joints; while in 1920, only 19 
were so convicted, although the breaches of the Drug 
Act had nearly doubled. 

At a meeting in March of this year, the following 
figures were presented to the Trades' and Labor 
Council of Vancouver showing the magnitude of the 
traffic:— "The amount of narcotic drugs legitimately 
sold in Canada in 1921 was valued at $182,484, in- 
cluding 2,416 ounces of cocaine, 5,286 ounces of mor- 
phine and 1,440 pounds of opium. Drug addicts 
known to Vancouver police are estimated at three 
thousand. The amount of drugs used per addict per 
day is from one to fifteen dollars' worth. If each ad- 
dict used only one dollars' worth per day, then in Van- 
couver alone the traffic would amount to $912,516 a 
year. The total amount sold in the Dominion per 
year legitimately being $182,484, the balance of drugs 
used by addicts in Vancouver alone would be valued 
at $730,032. The estimated number of addicts in 



ll#lfpif!!*li Nh^M#™Sf 



;:::;;;.; ::.:! F: .;;;,,::;!::;: 



■ 

H2 THE BLACK CANDLE / 

Canada and the United States is two million, on ie 
basis of one dollar per day per addict, the traffic repre- 
sents on the continent about $672,000,000 annually " 
As the minimum for a drug user has been set at $3 
per da y an d m instances ^ ^ ^ & ^^ 

of $30, it can be seen that this estimate presented at 
Vancouver may at least be trebled, and still only repre- 
sent the lowest possible figures. 

tJ'TV^ ^ m ° re kee " ly awake to the ™^ce, 
the city pf Vancouver, in 1921 circularized one hun- 
dred cities and towns in Canada asking these to join 
with them in a drug war against the drug traffic, and 
proposing that the Dominion Government be requested 
to amend the penalty clause in the Opium and Drugs 
Ac, so that a person guilty of an offence under the 
Act might be liable, on indictment, .to imprisonment 
for seven years, or if convicted upon a summary pro- 
ceeding, to a fine of from $200.00 to $1,000.00, or to ' 
imprisonment for eighteen months, or to both fine and 
imprisonment. 

As a result of this campaign, a very distinct tighten- 
ing was made in th e Act) a]though ffluch ^^ ^ 

would have been accomplished had it not been for the 
opposition of some few of the medical doctors who ' 
were members of the legislature. 

Apart from this opposition, one of the greatest ' 
difficulties arises from the profits that accrue from the 
traffic In Canada, many persons prominent in "the 
learned professions," in social and business circles, 
police officials, chemists and even newspaper men are 
engaged m this nefarious trade, the profits ranging 



THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 143 

1 . 

all the way from one hundred to ten thousand per cent. 
These are like the persons of whom Paulding tells 
us, in that they have learned professions which they 
do not practise, and practise many things which they 
have not learned from their professions. . 

One does not go far in fighting this traffic until one 
meets with determined opposition, treachery, threats, 
defamation and even with serious menace from 
these tar-blood parasites who live basely upon the 
proceeds of crime, who grow fat upon the wages 
of roguery. In Mohammedan countries, they call such 
men "God's adversaries." 

Because they fear lest the populace learn of their 
villainous enormities, these men stop at nothing to 
prevent publicity. One of their methods has been de- 
scribed by the committee on narcotic drugs of the 
American Medical Association in the following 
lines : — 

"Public opinion regarding the vice of drug ad- 
diction has been deliberately and consistently cor- 
rupted through propaganda in both the medical 
and lay press. Cleverly devised appeals to that 
universal human instinct whereby the emotions 
are stirred by abhorrence of human suffering in 
any form, or by whatever may appear like per- 
secution of helpless human beings, lurid por- 
trayals Of 'horrible sufferings inflicted' on ad- 
dicts through being deprived of the drugs ; adroit 
misrepresentations of fact; plausible reiteration 
of certain pseudo-scientific fallacies designed to 
confuse the unscientific mind are brought to bear 



^M-^&l^i^^^^^^i^: 



144 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



^THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 145 



on an unsuspecting public to encourage it to feel/ 
pity for the miserable Victims of persecution' 
by the authorities, who would deprive the 
wretches of even the drug they crave. 

"The 'righteous 5 narcotic practitioner claiming 
that he alone understands their plight and can ; ; 
relieve them, standing ready as a ministering 
angel of mercy to prescribe for their infirmity, 
begs the right and privilege of placing in their 
hands for self -administration the drug that has 
debased them and brought them in his power — 
for as much money as he can squeeze out of 
them/' 

Sometimes the propaganda takes the form of an 
editorial in defence of "public morals/' People should | 
not hear of these things at all, they argue, leaving us 
to deduce that the community is not shocked by the 
evil itself but only when someone tells of it. 

Frank Crane writing of such people defines them 
as those "whose morality consists in crying 'naughty I 
naughty!' when someone uncovers the septic germs of 
a national sewer," and declares they clamor that the 
lid be clapped on again, for to them typhus is pre- 
ferable to a bad smell. 

Continuing he says, "Pull down the dirty curtain 
there in front of the opium den. Tear down the heavy 
door that shuts out the daylight, throw open the dark 
blinds, and what is there to see? Dirt, disorder, dis- 
mal loneliness pretending to be gay. Elderly women 
trying to look young, miserable young women trying 
to look happy, sodden men trying to look sober. 



"The lure of vice? Why, it isn't vice that allures! 
It is the mystery we make of it that -does the 
mischief." 

One is also amazed to find opposition from persons 
whom one would never suspect of fostering the trade. 
This opposition is usually under cover, and arises from 
the fact that they are endeavoring to induce the pub- 
lic to believe that the spread of deleterious drugs is 
the result of prohibitory liquor laws, thereby gaining 
public support for a return to the old system. 






j. "{; 1»- " is.' i; iKTpi 



• ' ; '! ■ '! ' 'ii' ■ ! "f . 



WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS 147 



CHAPTER V. 

WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS. 
"Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad." 

DURING the year 1920, the Federal Government 
in an effort to stamp out the illicit traffic in 
narcotics, seized, through their Police and Customs* 
authorities, drugs to the value of approximately half 
a million dollars. 

Large shipments of habit-forming drugs have been : 
intercepted in the post offices. Parcels sent through 
the mails from England to Canada were found to •• 
contain morphine or cocaine, although the declarations 
on the outside wrappers gave the contents of the pack- : 
ages as clothing, pudding or confectionery. 

These drugs are also commonly mailed in maga- 
zines, the pages of which have been cut out and en- 
velopes containing morphine and cocaine inserted in 
the spaces. 

The Government authorities have also taken large 
shipments of narcotics from coal bunkers, state-rooms, 
and even the water-tanks of incoming vessels. In 
some instances, these have been concealed with the 
connivance of the ship's crew, and it was only through 
the fact that the police have foreign connections that 
the Government was able to know of these shipments 
in advance and to, therefore, be on the look out for 
them. 

146 



In one instance, a man- stepped off the boat. at the 
[port of entry with $50,000 worth of drugs in two 
I lui teases, and was promptly relieved of the same by a 
I Government official. 

One another occasion last year, opium valued at 
Imore than $3,000 was seized and five Oriental mern- 
Ibers of the crew of the steamer Empress of Russia 
Iwere arrested through the activity of the federal cus- 
|tom-s' officers. 

These officers also instituted a vigorous campaign 
| to locate the "higher ups" who are being held respon- 
sible for laxity in allowing drugs to be brought ashore 
I from the Empress of Asia, and who, accordingly, were 
[given an opportunity to tender their resignation. 

In order to prevent apparently harmless fishing 
I crafts from picking up drugs thrown overboard in 
[Water-tight packages from the Empress Steamship 
[line, seaplanes have accompanied the vessels from 
[ Victoria to Vancouver, a customs officer accompanying 
J the pilot. 

One of these water-tight packages which had been 
[dropped by confederates from a vessel, drifted upon 
\ the beach recently. 

Another shipment of drugs labelled under the in- 

1 nocent name of quinine sulphate, was intercepted by 

i the customs authorities and found to be morphine. 

(The shipment was invoiced at approximately $15,000, 

but would have netted the importer a profit of 

$100,000 to $150,000, had he been successful in getting 

the drugs into Canada. 

The Government officials also found that a ship- 



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■ Mln .,. \ Jim, I i I I j 



m 



A'i'J ' ■ m,;I' 



148 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS 149 



1 \ 



ment of statuettes which arrived at-the Port of Que-'] 
bee, were filled with morphine. These statuettes had i 
been sawed in two, filled with drugs, cemented up, and; 
covered over with color so as to make it almost im^J 
possible to detect the opening. 

Lest it should be thought that travellers are wholly J 
responsible for this illicit traffic, it is well to state! 
here that the major portion of smuggled drugs are- 
brought to Canada in vessels which carry freight. 

Recently, there was arrested on the Pacific Coast! 
a prominent Chinese business man who is alleged to.! 
have declared to the police that his business in drugs 
last year exceeded half a million dollars. \;i 

Fifty thousand dollars worth of opium, morphine ; 
and cocaine were found secreted under the verandah 
of an unoccupied dwelling in Vancouver. Drugs of 
the value of $50,000 were seized in the same city in 
a store, these drugs being hid in a chair and behind : 
a false baseboard in the counter in Tom Sing's store 
on Pender Street. 

When the police raided a tenement house on 
Madison Street, New York, a few months ago, "dope 
shiners" operating on the Canadian borders lost 
$200,000 worth of habit-forming drugs. Travellers': 
cheques to the extent of $2,000 were also found on v 
the premises. Indeed, companies have been formed 
with a capitalization of a quarter of a million dollars 
for the purpose of carrying on this nefarious traffic 
between Canada and the United States. These com- 
panies have at their disposal motor cars and aero- 
planes for transporting liquor and drugs. 



At Vancouver, opium smugglers have steam cars 
which will make sixty-five miles an hour. This kind 
of smuggling is called "the big transfer/' These cars 
carry 600 pounds of pressure, but most of the engines 
are tested up to 900 pounds. It is impossible for the 
police officers to either overtake or stop them. 

A gentleman "close-in" on the traffic, writing re- ^ 
cently from Vancouver says, "It is the easiest thing 
in the world to bring drugs into Canada across the 
boundary during the night, as, after midnight, the 
customs close down, say at Blaine and Huntingdon, 
fifteen miles from here, and there is nobody to check 
you up. The cars return before the customs open in 
the morning at six. 

"Then there are lots of gas boats, boats travelling 
between here and Seattle and other points. The same 
applies to whiskey as well as drugs, loads of the 
former leaving Vancouver daily. This will give you 
some idea of the loopholes that exist." 

Speaking of tye smuggling of drugs by sea, this 
gentleman says further; "You will remember that we 
have a lot of fog in Vancouver, in fact it is so thick 
at times it could be cut by the proverbial knife, and 
some of us have reason to believe that when the 
Oriental liners are at dock, the drug is lowered during 
the night to the small boats that come alongside. No 
patrol boat could keep check on smuggling under these 
conditions, especially when there are eight or nine 
boats at a time in dock from the East. 

"You are aware that an ounce of cocaine goes a 
very long way, but only occupies a small space, and 



150 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



careful as the Customs' searchers are, it is hard to 
locate it on the boats." 

Mr. F. W. Cowan, who has charge of the Narcotic 
Division of the Health Department at Ottawa, in 
writing of smuggling operations says, "It is one of 
the most difficult tasks imaginable to apprehend the 
persons responsible for the distribution of these drugs 
■ throughout Canada, and it is only owing to the fact 
that the federal police have facilities for dealing with 
this matter simultaneously in many parts of the Do- 
minion that the department is able to get at the real 
offenders in many cases." 

A short while ago a negro in a Western Canadian 
city, with the typical expansive spirit of the prairies, 
purchased 350 suitcases in one day. The next day, a 
porter carried one of these on his train and left 
it in an empty compartment This was found by 
a detective to be empty till, approaching the Border, 
it took on weight. When opened by the officers, mor- 
phine to the value of $3,500, with a large number of 
hypodermic needles, was found therein. The porter 
denied all knowledge of the suitcase and its contents. 

Eighteen gen'lemen of color, who work no harder 
than the lilies of the field, were also interrogated con- 
cerning the suitcase, but without any pertinent facts 
being elicited. 

While the Assyrians, Negroes and Greeks in Canada 
have become allies of the Chinese in carrying on the 
traffic, it is well known to the police and Government 
authorities that many Anglo-Saxons, men prominent 
in social and business circles, as well as lawyers, 



WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS 151 



physicians and druggists have also become engaged 
in the illicit sale, because of the enormous profits 
accruing therefrom. These profits range all the 
way from one hundred to ten thousand per cent. 
Carlyle seems to have been accurate when he said, 
"Civilization is only a crust beneath which the savage 
nature of man burns with an infernal fire." 

It is the habit of these pedlars to playfully shake 
some "snow" — that is to say a combination of cocaine 
and powdered borax — on the back of the hand of 
their friends and suggest that they sniff it up the 
nostrils. The friend is immediately stimulated, and 
if tired, loses his weariness and becomes mentally and 
physically alert. This is why the powder is some- 
times described as "happy dust." The interest and 
curiosity of the recipients are aroused and if they 
enquire where they can get it, they are offered a pack- 
age for a dollar. Presently, the new addicts pass on 
the discovery to their particular friends, with the 
information as to where the drug can be obtained. 

It was found in a New York clinic last year that, 
out of the 3,000 persons who were treated for the 
habit, 429 attributed their addiction to illness; 351 to 
curiosity, pleasure or trouble; and 2,482 from asso- 
ciation with friends as above described. 

That similar conditions prevail in Canada is shown 
by the following quotation from a pamphlet issued by 
the Children's Aid Society of the City of Montreal: 
"The cocaine habit must be stamped out in Canada. 
It is under-mining our boyhood, and cutting away the 
moral fibre of our girls. It is turning our young 



152 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



people into criminals and imbeciles. Older people 
falling victim to it, neglect all that life has held sweet 
to them in order that they may follow the trail of the 
scintillating powder. Fiends in human guise buy 
cocaine from certain quarters; it is then split into small 
quantities, wrapped in brown paper, each little pack- 
age being sold for twenty-five cents. 

"A dollar's worth of cocaine makes over one hun- 
dred such packages. The profit is therefore over two 
hundred and forty per cent. The sales are certain. 
The first samples are distributed to children free. The 
sample creates a demand and the children come again. 
It is refused unless they bind themselves to absolute 
secrecy. A few doses and the habit has grown. The 
children must have their dope. All moral sense is lost 
and in a few months our boys and girls are ruined." 

A probation officer of the Children's Aid Society , 
in one of our large cities has this to say of the sub- 
ject: "So great has this evil become that one con- 
stable has on his book one hundred and forty cases in 
one district. I, personally, know at least fifty cases, 
all children, between the ages of twelve and eighteen. 
Little boys of eleven and fourteen have been caught 
peddling cocaine in houses of ill-fame. 

"The physical aspect I can but liken to consumption. 
The deadly work of the drug is done before either 
the victim or the relatives perceive it. It is usually 
taken in powdered form and snuffed up the nostrils. 
The result, particularly in young people, is that the 
bones of the nose decay and they are subject to hemor- 
It is the most diabolical of all drugs on this 



WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS 153 

account, and for this reason, I am told by a physician, 
it directly attacks the lining of the nose and brain. 
The victim becomes emaciated, extremely irritable, 
nervous, suspicious, fearful of noise and darkness, 
depressed, without ambition and bad tempered to the 
extent of viciousness. Boys and girls lose all sense 
of moral responsibility, affection and respect for 
their parents, their one thought being to get the dope 
and be with their friends. 

"So degenerate do they become that the public parks, 
roadside or shed, is the same to them as a home. I 
know boys and girls, none of them over fifteen, all 
brought up of respectable parents and in good homes, 
who spent nights in sheds scarcely fit for a dog, and 
without food or change of clothing." ' 

In both the Police and Juvenile Courts many young 
persons under eighteen are found to be suffering from 
the drug habit, and one, known to myself became 
violently insane. Most of these juveniles are brought 
for crime of some kind or other, and are found to be 
habituated to the use of deleterious drugs. Some of 
these have belonged to prominent families, but in all 
the cases their names are kept out of the papers in 
order that the children may have a chance to be re- 
stored to normality without the handicap of a bad 
reputation. 

If these are well-advanced in addiction, we have no 
option but to send them to jail, there being no other 
place of detention where they may be kept away from 
the drug. 



CHAPTER VL 



TRAPPERS ALL. 

There are always more tricks in a town than are talked of. 

— Cervantes, 

THE Department of Health at Ottawa claim to 
have absolute control of the legitimate trade in 
narcotic drugs but state that if the illicit traffic is to 
be stamped out, the system of inspection of incoming 
steamers will have to be considerably improved, and 
the staff detailed to do the work very considerably 
increased, 

They also claim that the officers so detailed should 
receive special training in this work, as contrabandists/ 
are adepts in devising ways and means of securing 
entry for their goods. "While it is true," writes the 
officer in charge of the Opium and Drug Branch, 
"that enormous quantities of these drugs have been 
seized during the past year, there is no doubt that large 
supplies manage to find their way into the country 
without being intercepted by the authorities. At the 
present time, there is available in Europe a very large 
stock of narcotics, and the North American continent 
in particular is being flooded with large shipments." 

Drugs smuggled into Canada are seized by the De- 
partment of Customs and Inland Revenue and where 
the actual importer is found, he is prosecuted. The 
maximum penalty, however, is only two hundred 
dollars. 

154 



TRAPPERS ALL 



155 



Mr. A. C. Jensen, Superintendent of Police for the 
City of Minneapolis points out to us that as the 
legitimate traffic in narcotics is curtailed there will be 
a greater inducement to smuggle — that the law of 
demand and supply becomes operative — and that the 
burden falls upon the American and Canadian Govern- 
ments in excluding these narcotics from this continent. 

Governments, however, declare that they are unable 
to exclude them, and there is no reason to question 
either their efficiency or their bona fides. If therefore 
drugs cannot be excluded, the traffic can only be dealt 
with when apprehensions are made for selling or 
having in possession. This being the case, the courts 
should be empowered to take very drastic action in 
dealing with offenders, and the Governments should 
strictly see to it that no judge, magistrate or police 
officer slacks or becomes "easy" on his job. 

That the effect of smuggled narcotics has a bad 
effect on other countries than America is shown by 
an article in the public press stating that the inhabi- 
tants of the Northern Provinces of China had become 
discouraged in their attempt to prohibit the growing 
,of the poppy because of the tremendous amount of 
opium and morphine which was being smuggled , in. 
For this reason they were again openly encouraging 
the people to grow the poppy, the revenue from which 
could be used for the upkeep of their armies. 

If this report be correct, it means that still larger 
supplies of opium will be available and will ultimately 
find its way to all corners of the globe. 

For the maintenance of smuggling, secrecy is the 



156 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



first consideration. When, therefore, the customs 
official or the police officer, called a " 'tec," comes to 
match his wits against the contrabandist, he thinks 
so hard that he almost bursts a blood vessel. In re- 
turn for his pains, the public call him a "spotter" and 
other ugly names. 

Ah well! someone has defined the gentleman as a 
person who gives more to society than he gets from it. 

The smuggler brings liquor and drugs across the 
border line, between Canada and the United States 
in milk cans which have false bottoms, doubtless 
humming to himself, "If I had a cow and she gave 
sweet milk." 

Others bring in cocaine fastened to their bodies 
while apparently resting quietly in their Pullman berth. 

Or opium may be imported illegally in sacks of rice, 
those containing the tins being especially marked for 
the purchaser. 

Steel rods which appear to be solid are found to 
have been made hollow and filled with drugs. Even 
a tinned pineapple has been found to contain a bottle 
of cocaine in its cored centre, the cork of the bottle 
being carefully waxed and the top of the core being, 
re-inserted. 

But it is over the sides and gangways of ships that 
this confederacy of villains, the smugglers, do their 
cleverest work. To follow their devices, the drug 
squad need to be skilled in the stalker's art, and no 
loiterers at their labor. 

It is claimed that every liner docking in Pacific 
ports carries as high as fifty thousand dollars worth 



TRAPPERS ALL 



157 



of dope much of which is thrown overboard in cans 
attached to lighted buoys. 

One man we know of personally was offered fifty 
thousand dollars to build and operate a sea-going gaso- 
line launch to pick up this opium flotsam. 

It is stated that fast launches, with the acme of 
audacity, steal up to the seaward side of a liner and 
get a cargo of contraband drugs before the patrolmen 
in the row boats can stop them. This would seem to 
be a good place for the patrolmen to take from their 
hips that rotary clump of steel barrel which has been 
defined by Victor Hugo as an instrument which com- 
prises in itself not only a question and an answer, but 
the rejoinder too. Nevertheless, thousands of dollars 
worth of drugs escape the secret service men and are 
landed across the gangplank every time a ship from 
the Orient is in dock. 

The co-operation of the air board in supplying 
aeroplanes to trail the route of the Pacific steamers in 
entering port is being arranged for. These, however, 
will probably be required as air patrols for it is as- 
serted that seaplanes have been operating between 
Victoria and Seattle carrying both narcotics and in- 
toxicating liquors. 

When the ocean liner arrives in port from the 
Orient, men of erect and watchful mind are stationed 
at every gangplank, and surveillance is kept over every 
ship at night. Suspicious characters are searched. 
Members of the crew making frequent trips ashore, 
or seen in conversation with strangers are classed 
among these characters. 



158 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Coasting vessels are also used for rum-running and 
smuggling narcotics. It is said many of these anchor 
just outside the limits of customs jurisdiction and 
send the cargo ashore in small boats. Government 
officials have a proposal under discussion for declaring 
rum-running vessels to be pirates, through negotiations 
with foreign nations, looking to the cancellation of the 
registry of such ships. 

When the smuggler gets his stuff ashore, he may 
sell it to the ring, the pedlars, or to addicts. The 
problem is "to connect" with his patrons without being 
observed, for the members of the Drug Squad are so 
illogical, besides they hold their job by their long 
noses and thin shoulders that can get through a six- 
inch opening in any door. 

Then, sometimes, their slippery souled acquaintances 
steal from the smugglers. One man brought in thirty- 
six tins of Hong Kong opium worth seventy-two dol- 
lars a tin. He was arrested with one can in his 
possession and while in jail his friend "lifted" the 
other thirty-five. The friend got frightened though, 
and ultimately word was sent to me that on the pay- 
ment of one hundred dollars, the cache would be 
handed over to the court. The deal was not made — 
not even a "bonus" being offered— but shortly after- 
wards eleven cans of Hong Kong opium, believed to 
be part of this consignment, were taken by the police 
from behind the pictures in a Chinese joint. 

Sometimes, the smuggler, especially if he be a 
white man, swindles the Chinese pedlars knowing the 
latter cannot get redress. Such a case Is told as hav- 



TRAPPERS ALL 



159 



ing occurred in Calgary. The police were tipped off 
that thirty thousand dollars' worth of opium was 
scheduled to arrive on a certain train and would be 
found in two trunks. These trunks were billed to 
some local Chinamen. 

When the trunks were opened, the police found 
opium in the top tins and cement in the others. Some 
British Columbia Chinamen who had been deceived 
by the same ruse and who apparently were not lacking 
in finesse, gave the tip in order that the police might 
catch the shippers. This seems a good place to point 
out the strange physical peculiarity of dealers in 
illicit drugs— that is to say, each and all have two 
heads and no heart. 

Pedlars are much more easily caught with "the 
stuff" than smugglers, being generally exposed to the 
police by the addicts. For this reason pedlars, of late, 
have been demanding a big cut in the profits from the 
higher-ups. 

Such a case occurred recently in New York, where 
a mutinous mob of addicts surrounded the motor car 
of a pedlar on his itinerating tour and struck on his 
impossibly high prices. They succeeded effectually 
in putting the pedlar's pot off the boil, and in bringing 
him within the notice of the peace officers. It is al- 
ways serious when an addict strips himself of scruples 
and refuses to be a good fellow. 

One girl told me how she got an ounce of cocaine 
from a Russian pedlar to sell on commission; used 
it all herself and paid him nothing. 

"Was he angry, Junita?" I asked. 
6 



160 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



TRAPPERS ALL 



161 



"Magistrate," she replied, "Russians are always 

angry." , 

Most pedlars are peripatetic. They have no fixed 
place of abode but are of themselves walking opium 
joints, although comparatively few are addicts. If a 
Chinese coolie wishes to become a millionaire, he never 
so much as samples his noxious wares. Indeed, m 
making up "decks" of cocaine for the trade, he takes 
care to stuff his nostrils with cotton-batting so that 
he may not inhale a particle of the drug. 

He may carry the decks in the hem of his overcoat; 
in a specially constructed denim vest with little poc- 
kets; in a cigarette case, or just in his hand. When, 
however, a well-trained detective nabs a pedlar or ad- 
dict, he grasps the man by the wrist and makes him 
open his hands to show what is in them. Then the de- 
tective puts on handcuffs. Unless he does this, the 
pedlar or addict swallows "the evidence," in which 
event there is no exhibit "A" to place before the 

magistrate. _ 

Where a pedlar has worked up a trade, on his 
rounds, he may stand on a corner and exchange the 
"M" or "C" for cash, but, usually, he takes the money, 
on the out-trail and delivers the goods on the back- 
trail, or he may tell the customers where their supply 
is cached or planted. Sometimes, a child will make : 
delivery for the pedlars, thus evading the police. The 
pedlar's route is not unlike the trap-line of the fur- 
hunter in our northern hinterlands, and yields an 
equally sure return in pelts and profits. 

If an addict on the route, becomes "a dead pigeon 



■ — that is to say, if he has no money — and presumes 
to beg drugs on credit, the pedlar will declare he hasn't 
any* Where an addict is persistent, a pedlar has been 
known to "plant" a deck on him and then "squeal" to 
the police. In this way, the dead pigeon ceases to be 
a nuisance. To coax a wary pedlar, the addict has 
only to "flash a roll" for a supply of "M" or "C". 

Gn the other hand, an addict scorned, may perform 
a like "squeal" on the pedlar to his own satisfaction 
as well as to that of the police squad. 

If an addict changes dealers, he may also bring the 
wrath of his pedlar on him and be the victim of "a 
plant" 

"Now, magistrate," quoth an irritated addict one. 
day, "it is a beautiful state of affairs when a China- 
man can lower a white man to the gutter and then 
use the police force to put him in jail." 

Of course, in pinching at the misdemeanor of the 
pedlar and the misapprehension of the police, he en- 
tirely overlooks his own responsibility in the affair, 
bht drug slaves who must raise from three to thirty 
dollars a day, without a job or a bank account, have, 
neither the time nor concern to probe questions over- 
deeply. 

In one city, it was learned that a certain pedlar — a 
kind of double serpent- — thinking to make himself solid 
with the plain-clothes men, had planted cocaine on a 
victim by placing it inside the sweatband of the man's 
hat while he sat at dinner, but with rare exceptions in 
Canada, the peace officer's work is protective, as well 
as preventive, or punitive, so that this evil act not 



162 THE BLACK CANDLE 

only failed but recoiled on its promoter. The old idea 
that the police are a menace waiting to spring upon 
the innocent and unwary and hale them off to prison 
is dying out. The officer is no longer merely a symbol 
of authority, but stands for a symbol of human 

service 

It is true, alas! that some police officers have been 
known to tolerate a pedlar who informs on other 
runners for protection, or maybe he informs on die. 
addicts who patronize his rivals instead of himself. 
In this way, the pe&ar becomes a master-criminal 

This renegade first teaches men the use of habit- 
forming drugs, and then lives on them. Finally, he ; 
betrays them. This leprosy of soul would be on y 
paralleled by the undertaker who might kill a man to 

bury him. # u . 

Once, I discussed this with an addict who had, him- 
self been a peace officer, and who was now making a 
desperate effort to lift himself out of the drug pit 

-I do not feel so badly about this protection of the; 
traffic," he remarked, "as I do about the tolerance of 
the traffic—the awful acquiesance in it by the police. 

"They conclude the addict is beyond redemption and y 
say 'What is the use of putting one fellow in jail ^f or 
selling when the addict will get it some place else? .. 
"They forget that the addict is. a criminal. Sell 
him one grain of morphine, and to get another gram 
• he will knock a man down. Dope pedlars are the 
active agents of the devil. Worse than that, the devil 
tempts a man by something born in him, but tne : 
pedlar creates the thing." 



TRAPPERS ALL 



163 



It is alleged that one such pedlar had nineteen con- 
victions against him without having served a term in 
jail. Then, one fine day, a magistrate who had been 
fighting overseas came home and surprised this per- 
son by awarding him a penalty of six months. Just 
so! Just so! Blessed accidents happen sometimes. ' 

Be it said, however, that this tolerance of a pedlar 
by the police for the use he affords them, is exceptional 
and must not be considered as at all general. Here is 
the trouble: the police, instead of being backed by 
the public in the enforcement of the law, are more 
frequently criticized or opposed in the same. 

On my files is a letter from the Department of 
Health at Ottawa speaking of this very thing. Please 
give me leave to quote it, in order that we may lay it 
to the heart. 

"Unless the people of every municipality are 
prepared to demand strict enforcement of these 
laws and see to it that the police officers who are 
charged with this very difficult task are backed up 
at all times, we cannot hope to stamp out this 
very great evil in Canada, no matter how ready 
or willing the police of our various towns and 
cities may be to accomplish these ends." 
Many volumes might be written on the devious 
ways of smugglers and pedlars, but one cannot leave 
the subject without expressing the opinion that an 
extra heavy penalty should be awarded for the ad- 
ministration of drugs by a drug addict — that is to 
the fellow who starts another fellow. 

A drug fiend starts an amateur to get money to buy 



164 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



his own drugs, or because he has a supply to sell the 
amateur. "The man who started me" said one woman, 
a while ago, "started fifty others." 

A pedlar in this Dominion boasts that he came here 
thirty years ago and has taught two thousand people 
how to smoke opium. In his reckonings, a thousand 
here or there, probably does not matter, for drug fiends 
love to tell lies, but it is known for a certainty that he 
has taught a vast number, and that he boasts how his 
graduates are the best "cooks" of opium in the 
Dominion, 



CHAPTER VII. 

WAR ON THE DRUG RING. 

"This war is anonymous arid invisible . . . . the butchery 
of the unknown by the unseen."— The Times. 

^ |i HERE are international, national and muni-' 

X cipal rings, and rings within rings. 

A drug ring does not differ materially from an in- 
surance company, except that it is not incorporated. 
It has its headquarters, president, directors, and 
agents. It gives to its agents commissions, bonuses, 
as well as protection against accidents such as bail 
and fines in the courts. 

It has "prospects," and deliveries, but the policies 
it issues are for death, and not on the endowment 
plan. There are no beneficiaries except the Ring 
itself. ■ . ' 

Rings started in a small way some years ago but 
have been steadily increasing their business, until the 
profits now accruing are the most prodigious ever 
earned by any commercial enterprise. 

The Rings are looking for new worlds to conquer, 
and for this reason "the underworld" has gradually 
encroached upon and laid siege to the upper classes, 
until these are threatened with dissolution. 

The Drug Ring looks with covetous eyes upon the 
wealth of society and instead of stealing a lady's 
diamonds has only to invite her to a "snow party," 

165 



166 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



give her a few sniffs of cocaine, and before a great 
while the Ring has her jewels in its coffers. The same 
process is applied to suit "the prospect" with both 
sexes and in all classes. 

The Ring has its boosters, and recruiters who are 
paid either by salary or on commission— sometimes 
by both. A girl or young man of the laboring class 
can hardly serve in a cafe without being approached 
as a possible agent for the traffic although they may 
not recognize the contract as such. In banks, stores, 
offices, universities, high schools, military barracks- 
hospitals, and musical colleges the utterly evil traffic is 
being plied by the Ring through some of its salesmen. 
The profits of the Ring are becoming larger and ever 
larger. In one bon-fire in New York in February of 
this year/fifteen policemen destroyed $3,500,000 of 
illicit drugs and pipes, and probably then without 
seeming to have had any effect upon the business. 

The Ring or syndicate has wide ramifications and | 
is no longer content with the prospects afforded by the 
dance-halls, cabarets, theatres, and other places of; 
public assemblage but is directly attacking the homesji 
—''hand-picking" their people, so to say. Narcotics; 
are delivered daily to the west-end residences of al- 
most every town and city like milk ° r bread. 1^ 
some districts it is delivered by white persons, or again, 
it is carried in a laundry bag by a Chinaman who step| 
in and cooks the opium for Madam, the mistress, if 
she feels indisposed to prepare it herself. 

Of course, the Chinaman or the white man whot 
delivers is only the servant of the Ring, the officials | 



WAR ON THE DRUG RING 1 67 

of which are usually designated as "the higher-ups." 
Any one who starts out to seriously enforce the law 
against the Ring finds he is combating large financial 
interests and that these are in the hands of dangerous 
and unscrupulous persons. 

It means if you are getting anywhere with law en- 
forcement, that your character is assailed and even 
your life threatened. The fighter needs to bind upon 
his arm the motto of a celebrated Frenchman, "To 
dare, again to dare, and always to dare." 

Resolutions, however well framed, mean nothing in 
this fight which is going to be a fight to a finish. Un- 
less the forces of civilization strangle the Rings- 
choke them to death, the Rings are going to choke 
civilization. 

Does this sound hysterical or immoderate? Then 
listen to the words of Dr. Erwin C. Ruth, head of the 
Narcotic Division of the International Revenue De- 
partment of Boston who has during the present year 
made an amazing exposure of the illicit drug traffic 
which he says is costing the people of America many 
million dollars a year and wrecking hundreds of 
thousands of human lives. 

In an interview given to the Montreal Star, Dr. 
Ruth made many startling allegations and gave figures 
showing that the people Of this continent are being 
drugged to death. 

Speaking of the United States, he said, "During the 
last fiscal year, the bureau of Internal Revenue col- 
lected $1,170,291 in taxes from the legalized trade in 



168 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



narcotic drugs. The tax on narcotics is very small, 
the stamp tax being only one cent an ounce." 

Dr. Ruth declares that "more than ten times the 
licensed imports are smuggled in for illicit sale . 
Foreign countries are finding tts an easy prey for their 
drug traffic. War conditions left many foreign firms 
ruined financially and they are recuperating their 
losses in the narcotic drug traffic . . .This country 
is able to pay high prices, while the illicit trade with 
China is not so lucrative as it used to be." 

II. 

In discussing the drug Ring of Toronto, Ontario, 
Frank Mack said recently, "Somewhere in Chinatown, 
there is a group which controls the drug traffic in this 
city. Just who these men are, and where they live is 
a secret carefully guarded. Their names are never 
mentioned; not even in the byways of Chinatown it- 
self. One and all, they are known by the cryptic title 
of 'The Ring. 5 

"The operations of the Ring are as much of a mys- 
tery as are the identities of the men who control it. : 
No one knows where its headquarters are, no one 
knows when it meets, nor how often . * .This Ringj 
not only controls virtually the drug traffic of the city,: 
but has established certain retail centres, whereby: 
morphine, cocaine, and heroin are sold to pedlars for; 
distribution to addicts, and that when one of the Ring's: 
agents is caught by. the police and heavily fined in 
court for selling drugs, the Ring invariably comes to 
his aid and pays the fine out of its own coffers . ; « 



WAR ON THE DRUG RING 169 

Not alone are men the agents of the Ring but women 
also are in its employ. A month or so ago, the police 
claim that they secured a woman agent. She was 
arrested on a charge of illegally selling drugs, and 
although she most vigorously declared her innocence, 
a fine of $1,000 and costs was imposed — and promptly 
and unconcernedly paid ... In every city of any 
size there invariably is a ring of this nature ; for there 
is the inevitable collection of unscrupulous men who 
have both the daring and brains to make huge profits 
out of the sale of drugs to unfortunate addicts. That 
they should wreck hundreds of lives in their nefarious 
traffic and condemn scores of victims to years of tor- 
ment and poverty means nothing to them, so long as 
they can fatten upon the misery which they created. 
Wherever men value money above every human ill, 
there will be found the nuclei of drug rings." 

The Vancouver World of January, 1922 has this to 
say about their particular Ring ; — "Investigations 
made by the authorities have. led them to the conclu- 
sions that the most powerful and wealthy criminal 
organization on the American continent has its head- 
quarters here. Its object is the handling of drugs. 
Its ramifications extend as far east as Montreal and 
Chicago. It will undertake to sell $100,000 worth of 
'dope/ or it will sell it by the 'deck/ the small package 
sold by the street vendor for from one to five dollars. 

"It has its headquarters in Chinatown, but its army 
consists of men working on the docks, porters on the 
railroad, dining-car employees, waiters in cafes, dance 
halls and cabaret habitues, and other employees of 



I 1 i \ 



ii | 'i'S ij i{ lr$V$j jijl jf j 1 <| f Jl ii' III |ii \ i T :,' \ -J 1 1| ifi i I 'i '{ r |j I j « !i ) f \ «' f ,/ .;! I ■ 



170 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



these plates. It even has its recruits from the pro- 
fessional classes. From the highest to the lowest in 
all strata of society in Vancouver it has spread its 
slimy trail. White men and yellow men and black 
men; men of all races and colors and creeds, arid worst 
of all, women are in the organization." 

Another article from a Vancouver paper describes 
the activities of the Ring as follows :— "There is a 
well-organized, smoothly-working machine that has its 
regular runs into Winnipeg from here. The same 
ring operates an underground route into Chicago from 
this port. It is no secret among the denizens of Van- 
couver's underworld. They will tell you of a former 
Calgary resident who came here with $600, invested 
$400 in drugs, made his first run to Winnipeg, and in 
less than six months had cleared over $50,000. And 
he has only worked after the arrival of each boat from 
the Orient to Vancouver. For the balance of the time 
he spends a life of luxuriousness around one of Van- 
couver' s quietest and most exclusive hotels. He takes 
no chances in the actual smuggling/buying his 'stuff' 
wholesale from Chinatown and then running it into 
Winnipeg with the connivance of the sleeping-car 
porters. 

"Should his suitcase be taken on the train, both he 
and the porter would deny all knowledge of it. His 
only risk is during that brief time he takes the suitcase 
out of the cloakroom where it has been deposited by 
a baggage trans ferman, and walks with it to the train, 
and again in Winnipeg before he hands it over to 
customers already waiting. 



WAR ON THE DRUG RING 171 



"He is pointed out as a 'Wisenheimer,' 'a wise guy' 
by the underworld habitues but in the hotels he is 
known as 'a financial man.' Quiet, well-dressed, 
smooth-spoken and with an engaging personality, 
there is nothing to suggest the law-breaker about him." 

The Police and White Cross officials of Seattle, 
Washington, state that a drug-ring does business in 
their city to a trade running into six or eight million 
dollars a year. The above-mentioned authorities 
claim that the great bulk of addictive drugs come from 
Vancouver, and are brought down by automobile, 
launch, train and steamer. One of the biggest "hang- 
outs" is said to be a private house in the fine residen- 
tial section known as Shaughnessy Heights, this being 
the headquarters for the export trade to Seattle. It 
is estimated that there are upwards of ten thousand 
addicts in Seattle. A correspondent writing from 
Seattle says, "This is a trade in bodies and human 
souls which numbers in its sales force men who ride in 
limousines, ordinary looking individuals along the 
-streets, painted demi-mondes in the cabarets, down- 
and-outers along the pavements— all highly trained, 
trained not alone .'-to. sell, but to create demand where 
none now exists; trained to destroy, to corrupt and 
to pollute." 

>;v"' hi. 

At Montreal, Canada, there is a well-organized 
Ring, or syndicate, which is running all kinds of ad- 
dictive drugs into the States. For the month of 
November, 1921, one hundred and eighty-seven per- 
sons were tried under the Opium and Drugs Act. 



172 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Writing of this matter, a high Canadian official said 
lately, "It should be remembered that while Montreal 
is about the worst city in Canada in this respect, it is 
owing to the geographical location, being a seaport in 
addition to being a terminus of nearly all Canadian 
and United States Railways and within thirty-five 
miles of the American border with .the best of high- 
ways connecting it up with the large United States 
cities, and being the largest city in Canada, it is the 
national rendezvous for these large drug rings and 
crooks. To use a vulgar expression, 'Birds of a 
feather flock together/ Members of the underworld 
from all over the United States and Canada made 
Montreal their Canadian headquarters for carrying on 
this illicit drug traffic." 

That this Ring has its runners directly across 
Canada is evidenced by a communication received Re- 
cently from Chief-Constable William Thompson of 
Windsor, Ontario, "There is," he says, "every evi- 
dence that there is a drug organization from the con- 
tinuous endeavors to transport drugs from Montreal 
to border cities, and across the line to the American 
cities, namely Detroit, Pontiac, and other places with- 
in close range of our border. Thave also had infor- 
mation to the effect that 'dope' crosses at our own 
border and is taken through to Chicago. 

This statement is borne out by Sergeant A. Birth- 
wistle of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police who 
declares that prominent men in commercial and club 
life in Windsor are at the head of a Ring which is 
supplying drugs to pedlars. It is altogether likely 



WAR ON THE DRUG RING 173 



that these men receive the bulk of their supplies from 
Montreal as suggested by Chief -Constable Thompson. 

It is said that the ringleaders' names in Montreal 
were obtained through the death-bed confession of 
Mrs. William Bruce, aged 24 of that city in February 
of this year. - 

Mrs. Bruce and her friend, Dorothea Wardell, aged 
21, were found unconscious on the Montreal express, 
near New York City, by a Pullman porter, suffering 
from overdoses of heroin. 

The girls received emergency treatment but the 
Wardell girl died on the way to the Bellevue Hospital. 

Mrs. Bruce recovered sufficiently to tell her story 
to the deputy-police commissioner in charge of the 
drug squad. 

According to the police, Mrs. Bruce said, "I have 
known Dorothea Wardell for about eighteen months. 
She and I fell into the hands of a crowd of bootleggers 
and drug smugglers in New York and Montreal, who 
got us under their control with drugs, and used us 
for their own purposes. They never caught me, but 
Dorothea has been caught twice, once in Utica and 
once in Syracuse. We both carried drugs and whiskey 
in suitcases, between Montreal and Boston, and made 
much money for the men. Dorothea's man let her 
wear his diamonds sometimes. He is very rich." 

In this statement Mrs. Bruce was found to be cor- 
rect, Dorothea having been arrested in Syracuse while 
wearing $35,000 worth of diamonds and carrying two 
suitcases with drugs and whiskey. 

Mrs. Bruce in her confession said further, "We both 



174 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



WAR ON THE DRUG RING 175 



had a small supply of heroin which we carried in our 
hats , . . It is easy to get the stuff over the border. 
If the inspectors would start to look in our suitcases, 
we would just say, 'Oh, go along sweetie; I haven't 
got anything in there' and the inspectors would 'mosey' 
along." 

Despatches state that both the American and Cana- 
dian Police believe these girls to have been murdered 
— drugged to death by smugglers. 

IV. 

One might write at length, concerning the great and 
powerful rings on the American continent, but it will 
probably be more interesting at this juncture to turn 
our eyes to look at some in the Orient. 

The International Anti-Opium Association of Pekin 
has recently informed the Reuter's Agency, that Rings 
have been formed throughout China for the sale of 
morphine, and that this drug undoubtedly threatens 
to envelope China with a more destructive force than 
opium. 

The despatch which appears in a Tientsin paper 
sent to Canada, has this to say: "In Mukden and South 
Manchuria generally, the sale of morphia is princi- 
pally in the hands of Japanese druggists and pedlars. 
The latter are initiating the villages in large numbers 
in the use of drugs. As drugs are cheaper than opium, 
they are preferred. Jehol opium is sold at two dollars 
per ounce for the cheaper quality, and four dollars 
for the better quality. This low cost is attributed to 



the competition of opium brought in by gangs of 
smugglers from Siberia, and North Manchuria.'* 

Describing the personnel of these cosmopolitan 
traffickers, and their methods, the Chinese paper 
says:^"This gang is said to consist of Russians, 
Japanese, Chinese, Turks, Greeks, Caucasians and non- 
descripts of other nationalities to the number of about 
one thousand. They are said to have in their pay 
minor customs officials all along the line of traffic so 
rarely one of them is arrested . . . The attention of 
the Government should be concentrated in the first 
instance in driving the gang mentioned out of business. 
. . . Vast sums of money are being made daily by 
these most disreputable elements. Yet the work goes 
on. Undoubtedly, a percentage of their profits goes 
into Chinese hands, and for this pittance these Chinese 
are allowing their nation to be ruined. 55 

There is no doubt that the average Anglo-Saxon is 
filled with disgust and anger in reading how the 
Chinese betray their nation for so unholy an aggran- 
> disement. We naturally classify these traitors as men 
of fishy blood who might easily be guilty of any enor- 
mity no matter how villainous. We execrate them, 
and take upon ourselves a kind of "depart-ye-cursed" 
attitude. 

But, hark you, Saxons of America, having done so, 
let us stay awhile and ask to what extent if any, the 
Rings on this Continent are receiving protection in 
their evil traffic as a price for the Oriental vote in all 
or any elections. v 

One hates to raise even a wondering cogitation on 






.:: > ;.i; : : ill. '.'t.' i' A' ..''! W 



M'l ( I \y> 'it i'i 'i '' 'III, Uil I ! 



176 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



the matter but in view of the fact that it is discussed 
by well-instructed officers, we may make bold to lay 
the matter before the public for their consideration. 

Among the Chinese in Canada and the United 
States, there are two rival societies, or tongs, the 
Nationalist and the Masons, the former being probably 
the more influential. 

These may be pitted the one against the other, in 
which event they can be depended to betray each other, 
also the white folk who grant them protection. When 
one hears what these say about the "Melican Man" and 
his ways as compared or approximating with their 
own, one may properly recall that observation made 
by Victor Hugo that the worm has the same mode in 
gliding along as the serpent and the same manner of 
raising its head. 

This protection by certain politicians may be im- 
plied rather than directly arranged but, nevertheless, 
it is sometimes sufficiently real for the political boss 
to keep his cache of drugs intact and to escape any 
serious prosecution. How these things happen we can- 
not know exactly. Being as yet uninstructed in 
politics, it is not reasonable to suppose that a mere 
woman could know. All a woman can do is to ponder 
within herself whether the real bogey man on this 
continent is the one who causes adults to be sleepy 
because of the gold dust he flings in their eyes. 

Still, it is a good thing to have the civic, provincial, 
state, or federal police forces all working at once to 
eliminate the traffic. In this way, the protected man, 
or the favorite stool-pigeon of one force, is apt to get 



WAR ON THE DRUG RING 177 

"pinched" by the officers of another. When this 
occurs, there is usually an outcry in police circles of 
"a lack of co-ordination," which outcry often finds 
wide sympathy with the press, and with those of the 
public who are fighting the traffic. 

The public need not, however, waste any tears over 
this matter, and they would not if they knew the story. 

It is true that a good officer may thereby lose the 
moiety of a fine in a case he has worked up, but worse 
tragedies than this have occurred. 

Besides, officers of different forces have even been 
known to split the moiety when it worked out to their 
advantage, and there was no great harm in this either. 

It is not rational to expect the "boys in blue" to 
carry crepe on their spears all the time. Indeed, it 
isn't! 



CHAPTER VIIL 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS. 
Secret path marks secret foe. — Sir Walter Scott. 

THE Christianized Chinese in Canada and the 
States are also anxious to clear up crime or mis- 
behavious among their compatriots, and so are pro- 
ceeding to make these conform to the provisions of 
the white man's laws. 

Fussy folk, and self-opinionated ones, can be found 
who claim there is no such thing as a Christianized 
Chinaman, and that his profession is one of entire 
hypocrisy, just as though Jehovah's arm were short- 
ened and His ear heavy when the suppliants' color 
was just a shade deeper than their own. 

Knowing many men from the Flowery Kingdom 
who exhibit all the traits of Christian gentlemen, we 
are prepared to take them as such until the contrary 
is proven. What Sa'di, the Persian, said of the 
morals of the dervishes is here applicable: "In his 
outward behaviour I see nothing to blame, and with 
the secrets of his heart I claim no acquaintance," 

We believe that the letter here following was writ- 
ten by a Chinaman who desires to be a good citizen, 
and who has the same desires for his compatriots. At 
any rate, he speaks to the point and is no trembler. 
This was received by us a few months ago, and is in- 

178 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS 179 

teresting as showing the ideals and expressions of a 
naturalized Oriental; — 

"Magistrate Murphy, 

The Police Court, ■■ ' ■ 

Edmonton, Alberta. 
Dear Magistrate :— 

I have information that the China Town of this City, has 
lots of gambling houses and opium smokers. Things around 
here are so quiet just now, and hard times coming soon. I 
do not like the people around here getting .starving, because 
I found out lots of poor labourers lost all their money for play 
the Chinese gamble which is called *'fine tin' and waste up their 
good money for smoking opiums and so let their families, such 
as their father, mother, sisters, and young brothers starving 
at China. ■ . 

And I am also afraid that the peoples around here spoil their 
own condition, and spoil all business in this city too, because 
the peoples lost their money, but they must betting lazy, then 
they must go stealing anythings for their lives around this 
town, and getting all kinds of troubles here. 

I am now wish you to stop all the China gambles houses at 
once, and would like to show you all the gambling houses ad- 
dress to arrest them. 

If you spent a month time for the gambling houses, I believe 
the all gambling houses be stop so all the gamblers have to 
work for their own foods and every body have take care their 
families. Then I say 'Amen'. 

I think you would be glad to do this for me. If you want 
any help let me know soon. 

Yours sincerely, 

(Chinaman) 
It came about this year in Vancouver that the 
Chinese merchants and leading members of the colony, 
with the support of the Chinese consulate, joined in the 
citizens' campaign to clean up Chinatown both morally 
and physically. 

Realizing that their actions might lead to reprisals 
*fan-tan. • ; 



180 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



and to financial loss — that "the ungodly might bend 
their bow" — they still decided to wage war on those 
elements which had brought disrepute and opprobium 
upon all Chinamen in the Province of British 
Columbia. 

The advantages of such co-operation with the 
citizens has been set forth in an article in a Western 
daily paper by a reporter with a well-oiled mind. 
"The members of the Colony" he says, "have the in- 
side information. They know where the drugs are 
coming from; who is getting them into Vancouver; 
the underground methods by which they are being 
brought in; who has the financial interest in the drug 
ring; the methods of distribution in this and other 
cities; all the ramifications of the drug traffic are 
known to them. And they will tell all they know to 
the proper authorities. It is to be open warfare and 
they will do all in their power to combat the drug- 
ring." 

It is claimed that in some of the anti-narcotic cam- 
paigns, men who have financial interest in the Ring 
are among the most active workers, whether these are 
joining for sinister purposes, or merely, to divert sus- 
picion from themselves, it would be difficult to say. 
Probably their purpose includes both, but, be this as 
it may, it was a clever move to secure the co-operation 
of the reputable members of the Oriental Colony as 
allies in this campaign. 

In Vancouver and Victoria during the present year, 
mass meetings have been held and committees ap- 
pointed to take active steps in the organization of every 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS 181 



public service body in Canada for a fight against the 
activities of the Ring. The local organizations then 
proceeded to get in touch with all kindred branches 
in other cities in the Dominion, emphasizing the need 
of their taking a definite stand on the question. 

Some of the organizations back of the movement 
in the cities are the Board of Trade, Ratepayers' As- 
sociation, Women's Institutes, Women's Press Club, 
War Heroes' Association, Victorian Order of Nurses, 
Kiwanis, Rotary, Kwannon and Gyro Clubs, Parent- 
teachers' Association, Woman's New Era, and the 
One Hundred Per Cent. Clubs, the Women's Church 
Temperance Union, the Imperial Order of the Daugh- 
ters of the Empire, Trades and Labor Council, Uni- 
versity Women's Club, King's Daughters, The Macca- 
bees, Child Welfare Association, Orangemen, Ameri- 
can Women's Club, the Great War Veterans, the Local 
Council of Women, the "Y" Associations, the Medical 
Association, as well as the municipal and provincial 
authorities, and a hundred churches. 

In Seattle, believing that organization is the key to 
success, they are also combining their forces in a drive 
on addictive drugs. In Seattle, they too, have a 
branch of the White Cross Association. This Asso- 
ciation has done more than any other agency to com- 
bat the drug evil, and at a lesser expense. In seven 
months last year, one paid agent caused 275 arrests, 
some of the persons convicted received heavy fines 
and others terms of imprisonment of from one to four 
years. It is claimed by White Cross workers that 
police departments cannot appropriate the sums re- 



182 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



quired for the detection of pedlars in that most of the 
police officials are known to the drug runners, and 
hence large sums must be spent to secure arrests.. 

The White Cross are agitating that the Harrison 
Anti-Narcotic law be so amended as to permit of 
sentences of from seven to twelve years. The organ- 
ization declares that short terms and fines are no de- 
terrent in that the Ring has abundant money with 
which to pay the fines while the pedlar has no fear of 
from thirty to sixty days imprisonment. Besides, he 
is well rewarded for his temporary incarceration in 
jail. • 

In January of this year, a Narcotic Drug Control 
League was formed in New York, this League com- 
prising the most notable organizations and, workers in 
the State. The secretary is Joseph P. Chamberlain, 
Columbia University, New York City. 

The objects of their anti-drug League as set forth 
on the invitation sent out are as follows:— "To 
marshal representative forces against the world menace 
of drug addiction. The Narcotic Drug Control League 
represents the first organized movement against this 
evil which has reached alarming proportions and is 
producing a growing horde of incompetents and crim- 
inals involving even the youth of Our country," 

"Habit forming drugs are destroying and enslaving 
a steadily increasing number of our people. The toll 
of victims among the youth of the country is the 
striking development of recent years. The people do 
not know the facts. Our program is definite and con- 
structive. Its success demands the aid of the churches, 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS 183 

the judiciary, the medical profession, and public- 
spirited citizens representative of every class in the 
community. Patriotic people must unite to remove 
this scourge from our land and from the world." 

This claim that the people do not know of the terri- 
fying growth of the narcotic evil, was referred to re- 
cently by Dr. J. A. Drouin of the State of Vermont 
who said, "Most of us have been lulled to sleep by the 
usual so-called hospital reports, and other 'official' re- 
ports, regarding the fast disappearing drug addicts 
in the United States, especially after the enactment 
of the Harrison Narcotic Act." 

In Canada, our federal officers declare that the 
people would be astounded if they comprehended the 
extent of the illicit traffic and the foothold it has 
gained. 

That this method of organized public effort is a 
good one cannot be disputed. A Presbyterian clergy- 
man, in Canada, speaking of this matter said the Drug 
Ring is successful in its operation because its brains 
are pooled and concentrated. Occidental ingenuity 
and Oriental craftiness are dangerously combined. 
Unless all the different public bodies become organized 
into a single fighting force, and the best brains of 
our camp centralized and concentrated as the directing 
mind, the fight will be futile. To carry on successfully 
the crusade, monetary backing is necessary also. It 
will take money to fight money. 

In a previous chapter it was stated that white men 
of every clime and color were engaged in this traffic, 
and it was rumored that Japanese and German in- 



184 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



terests were chiefly responsible. As the Germans have 
not been trafficking in any goods with the people of 
this continent, for several years past, it would seem 
that the charge must be impossible of proof. Indeed, 
in communicating with the Chiefs-of-Police in the 
United States concerning the ravages of drug-intoxi- 
cation, it was markworthy that those bearing German 
names were especially prompt and thorough in reply 
to my enquiries, and in making suggestions as to the 
applications of practical remedies. 

It is true that the finest grade of cocaine in the 
world is manufactured in Germany and is known as 
"Mercks," Buyers claim — with what verity we can- 
not say — that this is now exported into Spain and 
shipped to this continent as "No. I Spanish." It is 
alleged on excellent authority that a kilo of cocaine 
(about two-and-a-fifth pounds) can, at the present 
time, be purchased in the Province of Alberta, Canada, 
for $18.00 or ,at about seventy-five cents an ounce. 
This seems incredible, in view of the prices paid by the 
addicts, but the Ring are not telling their secrets, nor 
registering their profits, so that we have no means of 
exactly' verifying these figures. 

On the other hand, we know that there are more 
narcotic drugs in Europe at the present time than in 
pre-war days, and that the market for these is in 
England, the United States and Canada, among the 
Anglo-Saxon races. 

In Germany itself, the use of narcotic drugs is 
"verboten," so that almost their entire traffic must be 
with other countries. Indeed, the same remark is 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS 18S 

practically applicable to all the European countries, a 
fact which is dealt with more fully elsewhere in this 
volume. 

It is also true that while no Japanese ever becomes 
an addict, yet it is claimed he is the most active and 
dangerous of all the persons forming the Ring in that 
he keeps well under cover and is seldom apprehended. 

We know, however, that several large seizures of 
contraband drugs have been made on Japanese 
steamers on the western coast of America. In March 
of this year, narcotics worth, at the wholesale price 
of $20,000, and a considerable quantity of Japanese 
whiskey were seized at Portland, on the Japanese 
steamer Miegyi Maru. The Japanese seamen hurled 
overboard a large number of sacks which were believed 
to have contained bottles. 

The United States have made, this year, a formal 
protest to the Japanese Government against the smug- 
gling of opium, morphine, heroin and other narcotics 
into America, Replying to this complaint, the Tokio 
foreign office has informed the American Government 
that efforts will be made to prevent illegal traffic in 
drugs and has requested Japanese skip owners to co- 
operate in the suppression of the same. 

Returning to the matter of the alleged participation 
of German persons in this traffic, one of the author- 
ities claiming this is Dr. Erwin C. Ruth, head of the 
Narcotic division of the International Revenue De- 
partment of Boston. He alleges that the opium and 
cocaine traffic is financed largely by interests in Ger- 
many and Great Britain, and that certain Germans 



186 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



have powerful corporations operating in South 
America, which deal in coca leaves, from which is 
produced cocaine. 

Concerning the operations of Drug Rings in Asia 
especially in relation to opium, Dr. Ruth states that 
the opium traffic in Asia has grown to immense pro- 
portions and has become one of the greatest indus- 
tries in the world, being organized with Standard Oil 
efficiency. In Persia, Turkey and India, immense 
plantations are operated by powerful interests, while 
great banking institutions for financing the drug traffic 
are well established. 

Among the pedlars who are the agents of the Ring, 
the traffic is chiefly in the hands of Americans, Cana- 
dians, Chinese, Negroes, Russians and Italians, al- 
though the Assyrians and Greeks are running closely 
in the race. 

It is claimed also, but with what truth we cannot 
say, that there is a well-defined propaganda among 
the aliens of color to bring about the degeneration of 
the white race. 

Maybe, it isn't so, after all, the popular dictum 
which has something to do with a flag and a bulldog. 

Oh! yes! it is the one which declares, "What we 
have well hold." The trouble with most bulldogs is 
that their heads are only developed in the region of 
the jaw and that any yellow terrier can hamstring 
them from behind. 

We have no very great sympathy With the baiting 
of the yellow races, or with the belief that these exist 
only to serve the Caucasian, or to be exploited by us. 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS 187 



Such a belief was exemplified in a film once shown 
at a five-cent theatre in Chicago, and was reported by 
Jane Addams. 

In the pictures, a poor woman is surrounded by her 
several children, all of whom are desperately hungry, 
and hold out pleading hands for food. The mother 
sends one of the boys on the streets to beg but he 
steals a revolver instead, kills a Chinaman, robs him 
of several hundred dollars, and rushes home with the 
money to his mother. 

The last scene portrays the woman and children on 
their knees in prayer thanking God for His care and 
timely rescue of them. 

The Chinese, as a rule are a friendly people and have 
a fine sense of humor that puts them on an easy footing 
with our folk, as compared with the Hindu and others 
we might mention. 

Ah Duck, or whatever we choose to call him, is 
patient, polite, and persevering. Also he inhales 
deeply. He has other peculiarities such as paying his 
debts and refraining from profanity. "You sabe?" 

The population of China amounts to 426,000,000 
or one-third of the human race. Yes! it was a New 
York citizen who, looking up from an encyclopedia 
exclaimed with deadly earnestness, "In this household, 
we shall not have more than three children seeing 
this book says every fourth child born in the world is 
a Chinaman." 

Still, it behooves the people in Canada and the 
United States, to consider the desirability of these 
visitors — for they are visitors — and to say whether 



188 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



or not we shall be "at home" to them for the future. 

A visitor may be polite, patient, persevering, as 
above delineated, but if he carries poisoned lollypops 
in, his pocket and feeds them to our children, it might 
seem wise to put him out. 

It is hardly credible that the average Chinese pedlar 
has any definite idea in, his mind of bringing about 
the downfall of the white race, his swaying motive 
being probably that of greed, but in the hands of his 
superiors, he may become a powerful instrument to 
this very end. 

^sln discussing this subject, Major Crehan of British 
Columbia has pointed out that whatever their motive, 
the traffic always comes with the Oriental, and that 
one would, therefore be justified in assuming that it 
was their desire to injure the bright-browed races 
of the world. 

Naturally, the aliens are silent on the subject, but 
an addict who died this year in British Columbia told 
how he was frequently jeered at as "a white man ac- 
counted for." This man belonged to a prominent fam- 
ily and, in 1917, was drawing a salary of six thousand 
dollars a year. He fell a victim to a drug "booster" 
till, ultimately, he became a ragged wreck living in the 
noisome alleys of Chinatown, "lost to use, and name 
and fame." 

This man used to relate how the Chinese pedlars 
taunted him with their superiority at being: able to sell 
the dope without using it, and by telling him how the 
yellow race would rule the world. They were too 
wise, they urged, to attempt to win in battle but would 



INTERNATIONAL RINGS 189 



win by wits; would strike at the white race through 
"dope" and when the time was ripe would command 
the world. 

"It may sound like a fantastic dream," writes the 
reporter, "but this was the story he told in one of the 
brief periods when he was free from the drug curse, 
and he told it in all sincerity." 

Some of the Negroes coming into Canada- — and they 
are no fiddle-faddle fellows either— have similar ideas, 
and one of their greatest writers has boasted how 
ultimately they will control the white men. 

Many of these Negroes are law-abiding and alto- 
gether estimable, but contrariwise, many are obstin- 
ately wicked persons, earning their livelihood as free- 
ranging pedlars of poisonous drugs. Even when de- 
ported, they make their way back to Canada carrying 
on their operations in a different part of the country. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PRISONER AT THE BAR. 

"Ready or not 
You must be caught 
All around the goal or not." 

STRANGE as it may sound, one of the greatest 
difficulties in dealing with that community of 
sinners known as "the Ring" lies in the fact that the 
judges, magistrates and prosecuting attorneys are 
comparatively uninterested in the vicciosity of the 
drug traffic and concerning the strangle-hold it has 
gained on the country. 

Not long ago, a Canadian magistrate imposed a fine 
of a thousand dollars on a drug pedlar. The pedlar 
appealed the case. The learned trial judge asked the 
crown prosecutor why the fine was so high. The 
prosecutor didn't know. The fine was then reduced 
to two hundred dollars which is less than half of what 
the tan-visaged gentleman from the Flowery Kingdom 
would have made from the sale of opium at one 
"hop" party where the usual fee for white smokers 
is ten dollars apiece. 

In this particular case, there was no doubt what- 
soever that the position taken by the trial judge and 
the prosecuting attorney were taken in what they be- 
lieved to be in the best interests of justice, for both 
are men of absolutely unimpeachable integrity. 

The case is cited merely to show the need of in- 

190 




A TYPICAL GROUP OF DRUG ADDICTS 



1.— A victim of mixed addiction.-— Chapter 26, Part II. 

■2.— An addict, or Junker.— Chapter 21, Part II. 

3, — "The patient presents a picture of a poorly developed, poorly 
nourished- individual with a cold, clammy skin."— Chapter 
19,, Part II. ■ 

4 —"As one looks upon these wrecks of humanity, one is fearful 
• for the future of the race."— Chapter 20, Part II. 

5 .—"When owing to an insufficient will-power on the part of the 
patient, the personal appeal has failed."— Chapter 28, Part II. 

6,— "Students 'cramming' for an examination will take cocaine 
until, ultimately, cocaine takes them,"— Chapter VIII, 
Part I. 



PRISONER AT THE BAR 191 

structing- the public concerning the ring and its agents, 
and as to why the Dominion Government allows a 
magistrate to penalize a pedlar for a fine one thousand 
dollars and costs or to imprisonment for any term 
not exceeding one year, or to both fine and imprison- 
ment. It would also show the public why these penal- 
ties, rigorous as they are, must be considered as en- 
tirely inadequate in dealing with the Ring. 

Elsewhere, we have said that politics might have 
something to do with the difficulty in securing con- 
victions against Chinamen, From the report of the 
State Board of Pharmacy, California, one is amazed 
to find that the Ring has secured such power that even 
those intrusted with the dispensing of justice, are 
regularly employed by Chinese companies to act as 
their attorneys. 

The report reads as follows : — "In some localities 
it has been found that the district attorney, and some- 
times the police, judge or justice, is regularly em- 
ployed by the Chinese companies to act as their at- 
torney, These facts only come to the Board's atten- 
tion after the prosecutions are begun, when it is found 
that these cases are not being brought to trial as 
promptly as they should, or that some unknown in- 
fluence is being brought to bear making convictions 
difficult to secure. If the Board did not employ 
special counsel it would be utterly impossible in such 
cases to make any headway at all. It, therefore, be- 
comes necessary for the Board, inspectors and attorney 
to devote more time and attention to such cases in 
order to prevent continuous postponements, and it is 
7 



192 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



sometimes necessary for the Board to have cases trans- 
ferred to another township owing to the attitude of 
the Justice." 

This is a matter which should be closely watched 
in that it might occur in any town or city. 

The State Board of Pharmacy has somewhat to say 
of the police also while setting forth the difficulties 
encountered in prosecuting. The paragraph reads, "In 
certain localities it has been found upon investigation 
that the police department could not be taken into the 
confidence of the Board to handle its work. The 
Board was therefore compelled to transact such busi- 
ness with the sheriff of the county; however we are 
pleased to inform you that, in but one instance, has 
it developed that neither the police nor the sheriff's 
department could be trusted to handle this work ... 
In the larger cities, the Board has always had the as- 
sistance and co-operation of the United States customs 
and internal revenue departments whenever unstamped 
opium was found. After the Board had prosecuted 
the person in whose possession it was found, the 
Federal authorities would then prosecute further such 



a case. 



II. 



One of the greatest difficulties in dealing with the 
Ring and its agents relates to the matter of bail. Being 
taken into custody by the police does not really con- 
stitute a great inconvenience to these persons. The 
pedlar is released on bail almost immediately, and as 
a consequence of the enormous profits can sell enough 
drugs between the period of his release and trial to 



PRISONER AT THE BAR 193 

make up for the bail which he forfeits by fading away. 
Or if he wants to stay with the charge, the Ring ar- 
ranges the bail and he has little worry concerning it. 
Bail is almost invariably supplied, even in small places, 
showing that no pedlar is outside the watchful care 
of the syndicate. This is usually forthcoming a few 
minutes after an arrest is made. It is not their policy 
that their agents should remain in the cells for any 
length of time, especially if the agent should be an 
addict and likely to tell secrets Under the stress of 
drug-need. ; ? 

And then, well then, it happens sometimes— no one 
knows how — that when the pedlar does not appear 
upon being called for trial, the bail bonds prove to be 
absolutely worthless, and that no cash has been de- 
posited as collateral. 

A barrister related to me that in the case of a 
colored woman who had come before me recently, he 
had been offered five hundred dollars to pass her a 
package of morphine while consulting with her in 
the cells. She had been refused bail, and, her friends 
were afraid she might "break" under the strain of 
cross-examination. 

The people lived in a miserable shack, but had ap- 
parently ample funds to pay all legal expenses and to 
bribe the counsel. On his refusal, they urged that if 
he would only put the package in his pocket, the 
woman could be relied to pick it, so that he need feel 
no culpability in the matter. 

This barrister further related that one of his clients 
— by repute a seller of wares in a small way— lost 



194 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



awhile ago, at fan tan, the sum of twenty-two thousand 
dollars. 

A despatch from British Columbia states that in 
one bank in the Province $400,000 a month is sent 
to the Orient by Chinamen. If this be a fair average,- 
the total per annum amounts to nearly five million 
dollars from this one bank. The figures are indicative 
of the sums of money at the disposal of these aliens, 
and maybe the figures show incidentally why there is 
so much unemployment in Columbia by the Sea. Such 
immense sums being drawn from production, without 
any being returned, must lead to a serious situation. 

In view of these facts a fine for a pedlar must be 
considered as a joke, were it not, alas, a tragedy. 
We will never make progress in wiping out the traffic 
until imprisonment or deportation are substituted for 
fining. 

Why this has not been the Governmental policy in 
Canada and the United States, can only be attributed 
to the fact that the majority of our legislators are 
ignorant of the extent of the traffic and the f rightful- 
ness of its consequences. At any rate, as yet, these 
are only biting their coral on this question.* 

No one who understands the profits and the injury 
to the victims can argue for a moment that fining is 
to be seriously considered either as a punishment or 
a deterrent. It is wholly as reasonable to impose 
fines on the poisoner of wells or on the deliberate 

* In June 1922, amendments to the Opium and Drug Act of ' 
Canada, covering these points, were ratified by the Federal 
Government. 



PRISONER AT THE BAR 195 

disseminator of deadly germs, the results being ul- 
timately the same, except that the dealer in "dopes" 
commits the crime for his personal gain. 

It is not reasonable to suppose that our legislators 
are moved by compassion for the fell and savage 
beasts who are purveyors of narcotics, any more than 
they could be moved to compassion for the striking 
rattler with its fangs and poison ducts. 

Their comparative leniency towards the Ring and 
its agents must therefore be attributed to their lack 
of information on narcotics. • ■ ■ - 

III. 
At this point, the legislators may say that under the 
Opium and Drugs Act of Canada, the police magis- 
trates have now the option of imposing imprisonment 
instead of a fine, and that the judges of the United 
States have the same powers under their Federal or 
State enactments. 

This is quite true, but If the traffic is to be destroyed 
it is unwise that they should have this option. There 
are few magistrates in their home towns, in the face 
of strong pressure from counsel for the defence, or 
with tears from the prisoner and his relatives, 'can 
impose a term of imprisonment where a fine is pro- 
vided as an alternative. After all, magistrates like 
legislators, are extremely fallible persons. 

In considering the punishment for pedlars it is easy 
too, for a magistrate to remember that five hundred 
dollars or a thousand dollars make an impressive re- 
turn in the monthly reports to the municipality or 



196 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Government, incidentally rolling up the revenue in a 
way that gladdens the heart of those who have to face 
the budget items. It is well to consider these too, but 
for a certainty, it can never check the drug traffic any .J 
more than Mrs. Partington's broom could hold back .'• 
the Atlantic. 

This general imposition of the minimum fine by the 
magistrates has been amply demonstrated in the ad- 
ministration of the prohibitory liquor laws as well as , 
in certain offences, triable summarily under the Crimi- 
nal Code of Canada. ;/ 

There are, of course, some notable exceptions in , 
the administration of maximum penalties as applied ; 
to dope pedlars but, speaking generally, the opposite 
condition prevails. 

Referring to this matter in a recent letter, Chief- 
Constable Newton of Winnipeg said, /'Chinamen, 
Negroes and Jews thrive by reasons of the traffic, and 
drugs are so easily transmitted from one person to \ 
another that their detection is most difficult. Per- 
sonally, I would advocate more severe penalties and 
would eliminate the fining of persons found surrep- 
titiously selling drugs, and would impose a jail sen- 
tence of not less than six months for the first offence/* 
In some of the Canadian cities, the opinion is grow- 
ing that to make the punishment fit the crime, all cases 1 
of unlawful selling should be laid as indictable offences 
as provided for in the Opium and Drugs Act wherej 
a penalty up to seven years is imposed. In Montreal;] 
and Vancouver, several persons have recently been 
sentenced to five-year terms. In the United States,! 



PRISONER AT THE BAR 197 

physicians are being sentenced for terms of from ten 
to twenty-five years. 

Not long ago, a Western Canadian newspaper an- 
nounced in double-leaded type, "The King of the 
Dope Pedlars Captured." He was awarded a penalty 
of four months in jail in spite of the adage that 
"When you strike at a king you must kill him." 

There are happenings like this Which cause an out- 
cry for the lash, and it is an outcry that is daily grow- 
ing in volume by those who have to do with the traffic. 
It is advocated that for the illegal sale of narcotic 
drugs, ten lashes should be administered the convict 
on entering jail and ten on leaving. It is strongly 
urged that mild fines and short sentences, as punitive 
measures, have only served to bring the law into dis- 
repute among the criminally minded. 

Others, however, are opposed to lashings and argue 
that by applying the cat-o'-nine tails to the Oriental, 
our conduct would approximate that of the policeman 
in the Province of Saskatchewan who, in chasing some 
stark naked Doukhobors, threw off his garments one 
by one, because of the heat, until coming upon them, 
he was naked too. 

IV. 

Perhaps, the best way of dealing with the members 
of the Ring and their agents is to deport them where 
possible under the law. Eighty persons were deported 
last year from the Province of Alberta, and there is 
not a liner clearing for the Orient that does not carry 
some Chinese who have been officially declared as 
"undesirable aliens." 



198 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



For the benefit of those who may desire to know ; 
who may legally be deported, we quote in part section -j 
40 of the Immigration Act of Canada; — "Whenever! 
any person other than a Canadian citizen or person* 
having Canadian domicile . . . has become an inmate; 
of a penitentiary, jail, reformatory, prison, asylum or] 
hospital for the insane or mentally deficient, or an < 
inmate of a public charitable institution . . .it shall! 
be the duty of any officer cognizant thereof, and the 3 
duty of the clerk, secretary, or other official of any; 
municipality in Canada wherein such persons may be, 1 
to forthwith send a written complaint thereof to thej 
minister, giving full particulars." 

Many of the Chinese and Negroes selling contra-j 
band drugs have established domicile although they! 
cannot count any time spent in a jail or asylum asf 
applying to the five years required as residence. 

If they have been travelling backward and forward! 
to the United States, it also becomes difficult for thesej 
persons to claim this Dominion as their residence. 

One of the greatest hindrances to deporting aliens J 
lies in appeals or in writs of certiorari from the con-j 
viction of the magistrate. 

Looking to deportation, the. magistrate imposes al 
jail sentence, or both imprisonment and a fine. Ini 
the higher court, the learned trial judge almost in*| 
variably reduces the sentence to a fine only, thus pre-| 
eluding the possibility of deportation. 

It is not that the judge thinks of the offence less] 
seriously than the magistrate, but counsel for the apdj 
pellant makes a pathetic plea for a reduction of thej 



PRISONER AT THE BAR 199 

penalty to a fine, the appellant having already served 
a period in jail awaiting the hearing of his case. 

Counsel further urges in "good sentences well pro- 
nounced/' that a fine will amply, meet the needs of 
justice as well as permitting the sad and rather vir- 
tuous appellant to return to his home and business. 
Indeed, if you listen to the barrister's silver sentences, 
you will inevitably conclude that the magistrate who 
imposed the sentence of imprisonment is a pestilent 
person and, maybe, an extraordinary idiot, even when 
the magistrate is yourself. 

And then — ah well! someone has to say it — the 
judge, having once been counsel himself, reflects that 
when the appellant has paid the counsel's fees, as well 
as ithe costs of the case, he will be amply penalized for 
the offence. 

For these reasons, almost any drug pedlar who 
knows the method can have his term knocked off and 
escape deportation — and they do escape. 

Maybe, it would be possible to have the Immigra- 
tion Act amended to enable our taking proceeding for 
deportation against any alien who has been convicted 
and fined. The Act might be amended, too, so that 
naturalized aliens convicted of selling should suffer 
the cancellation of their naturalization papers. 

At any rate, whatever the punishment inflicted, it 
should be of a preventive nature. A fine only means 
that the city or province taxes the trade and thus in 
a sense, become partners therein. The punishment 
should not leave the pedlar free to commit the same 
crime over and over again. 



A COMPARISON 



201 



CHAPTER X. 

A COMPARISON AND A QUESTION. 

When nations go astray, from age to age 
The effects remain, a fatal heritage. 

—Robert SoutheyJj 

IN England, the illicit use of narcotics is prosed 
cuted under the "Dangerous Drug Act," assented! 
to in 1920. It has supplementary regulations but does! 
not differ materially from the Acts in force in Canada! 
and the United States, except in clause 14, which pro- 1 
vides that "any constable may arrest without warrants 
any person who has committed, or attempted to com- > 
mit, or is reasonably suspected by the constable ofl 
having committed or attempted to commit an offenceT 
against this Act, if he has reasonable grounds for be- J 
lieving that that person will abscond unless arrested, or! 
if the name and address of that person are unknown toi 
and cannot be ascertained by him." 

The value of such a provision can hardly be overj 
estimated and if adopted on this continent should do| 
much to prohibit peddling. 

On the other hand, in the administration of thisj 
Act, the police work under a great handicap in that nc 
conviction can take place unless a forbidden drug isj 
found actually on the person of the arrested man or] 
woman. As a result, there are places of assignation! 
where the habituates go for their supply of soporific 
drugs, and where there is a system of warning signals 

200 



when unknown or unauthorized persons seek to gain 
admittance. 

There are hundreds of these places in London, some 
in the finest areas in the West End; others around 
Shaftesbury Avenue, or in the squalid districts about 
Tottenham Court Road. These may be night clubs, 
cafes, hair-dressing parlors, or dancing dens. 

The Hindus, Lascars, Chinese, and Japanese who 
live in the East End of London conduct similar 
places of resort presumably as restaurants, manicuring 
establishments, shops for the sale of lingerie, cigar- 
ettes, or for toilet requisites. 

It was discovered recently that a favorite point for 
meeting of vendors and addicts was at the statue of 
Nurse Edith Cavell in St. Martin's Lane, near Tra- 
falgar Square. 

The London Evening News, discussing the matter, 
says that there is no doubt of the existence of some 
powerful organization or ring which not only outwits 
the police and Customs officials, but has complete con- 
trol over its agents. A Hindu who refused to say 
where he had obtained the drug found on him declared, 
"It is more than my life is worth to say where I got 
the stuff." In no single instance have the London 
police been able to learn the source of supply from any 
suspected or convicted person. 

In a report of the committee appointed by the Secre- 
tary of State in England to consider outstanding ob- 
jections to the draft of the Dangerous Drugs Act, it 
is stated that over thirty million prescriptions for 
narcotics are given annually. As the population of 



202 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



England and Wales is 37,609,600, it can readily be 
seen that as compared with the United States, their 
consumption is very much greater. The population of 
America is approximately 107 millions and their es- 
timated prescriptions for last year totalled less than 
twenty millions. We are, of course, presuming that 
equal amounts are prescribed in both countries. 

In England, however, one deduces from the com- 
parative dearth of cases in the police courts, that drug 
pedlary has not reached the proportions of the business , 
on this continent, the bulk of sales being through the : 
chemists. * 

This is probably the reason, too, that the pedlars 
have no "corner" on drugs, for while an opium smoke 
in England costs two shillings, in Canada it may cost 
ten dollars, or twenty times the amount. 

A friend of mine who is a social worker in the East 
End of London has, in a letter, given me information 
concerning the "Chinatown" which is located in that 
district. Her letter reads : — 

"Chinatown consists mainly of two thoroughfares 
named Limehouse Causeway and Pennyfields, Lime- 
house, wherein, a number of Chinese citizens have re- 
sided since 1910. Previous to that year there were 
only a few who had permanent residences, which were 
situated in Limehouse Causeway. 

"Prior to the outbreak of the Great War in 1914 
no law existed in England prohibiting opium traffic. 
Shortly after the War commenced it was made a 
serious offence under the Defence of the Realm Regu- 
lations to smoke, or for persons to have in their pos- 



A COMPARISON 



203 



session, opium without authority, also for any person 
to possess opium smoking utensils. In 1921 these 
Regulations were abolished and in place of the Regu- 
lation prohibiting this traffic, the Dangerous Drugs 
Act of 1921, which has similar provisions was passed. 

"Opium smoking pertains in this District practi- 
cally only among the Chinese, although two or three 
cases have come to light in Which English women have 
indulged in the vice. It will be remembered that the 
well known actress Billy Carleton, who died mysteri- 
ously in 1920, and upon whom an inquest was held, 
indulged in opium smoking at a West End flat, and 
that the opium and utensils were supplied by Ada Low 
Ping You, the British-born wife of a Chinaman re- 
siding in Limehouse Causeway. For this offence 
Mrs. Low Ping You was convicted and sent to prison, 
and her husband was subsequently deported for 
trafficking in opium. 

"The opium which is used by these unauthorized 
persons is smuggled into this country by Chinese sea- 
men. The subterfuges they adopt to effect their pur- 
pose are very ingenious. In some cases Chinese 
seamen have been known to make temporary boot- 
socks of raw opium, others conceal it under their 
armpits, in their clothing, etc. By these methods 
they try to evade detection by H.M. Customs Officers 
and, if successful, they find a good and ready market 
amongst the Chinese residents. 

"The raw opium is then boiled in a copper sauce- 
pan, allowed to get cool, and when it sets it is prepared 
in small pills for internal application, and in packets 



204 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



for smoking. The pills have an effect similar to that 
of smoking. The drug is then surreptitiously sold 
and used in the East and West ends of London, 
The inveterate opium smoker can usually be detected 
by his extraordinary sallow complexion, dreamy ap- 
pearance and want of vitality. 

"Opium smoking dens are usually arranged in upper 
rooms of the houses. The windows of such places 
are invariably covered in such a way as to prevent the 
fumes escaping into the street, obviously for the pur- 
pose of avoiding detection. These rooms are fitted 
out either with wide wooden shelves or beds upon 
which recline those desirous of taking an opium smoke. 
These smokes vary in price from 2/- to 5/- according 
to the value of the drug and the financial position of 
those desiring to indulge. 

"When the Defence of Realm Act came into opera- 
tion prohibiting opium smoking, etc., a number of 
these dens existed in 'Chinatown.' From this time 
until 1920 many prosecutions took place at the Thames 
Police Court and the offenders were fined, and in 
some cases imprisonment was imposed, but this did 
not deter the Chinamen a great deal, as when a fine 
was inflicted, it was at once paid and the 'Chink* 
continued his vice. In 1920 the police were very con- 
siderably aided by one of the Thames Police Court 
Magistrates to rid the District of this traffic, by re- 
commending the chief offenders for deportation. This 
has had a wonderful effect, and opium smoking in 
'Chinatown' to-day is almost non-existent, although 
it will never be entirely abolished as long as Chinese 
are resident in this country. 



A COMPARISON 



205 



"No other drug traffic prevails in Chinatown." 
Apparently, the English people are not alive to the 
drug menace as we are on this continent and it is only 
when some actress or noted person takes an overdose, 
either by accident or misadventure, that public com- 
ment is made. Visitors to England and returned 
soldiers allege, however, the habit is making pro- 
digious headway, especially among the denizens of 
the underworld, and that little or no difficulty is en- 
countered in getting supplies of narcotics to be used 
there, or smuggled abroad. 

The report of the special committee appointed by 
the Treasurer of the Revenue Department of the 
United States, goes to show that the greater number 
of addicts are American born. "It is a rare occur- 
rence" the report claims, "to find an addict among the 
immigrants on their arrival in this country, although 
some of them become addicted to the use of these 
drugs after taking up their abode in this country. Of 
course, this statement does not apply to the Chinese 
and certain other nationalities of the Orient." 

It must be borne in mind that the profligate denizens 
of the underworld, in the large European cities, do 
not migrate to a country where they will be expected 
to perform hard manual labor, and where narcotics 
are vastly more expensive. This may explain some- 
what for their comparative scarceness, although there 
is no doubt whatever that no such addiction exists in 
Europe as in America. 

We have already shown that compared with the 
seventy-two grains of narcotics per capita used in 



206 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



America, the Austrian uses less than one grain, the 
Italian one, the German two, the Portugese two-and- 
a-half, the Frenchman three, and the Hollander three- 
and-a-half. 

While this comparison relates to narcotics gener- 
ally, an American authority on the subject gives the 
following figures on the opium alone consumed per 
capita in the United States. "From 13 to 72 per cent, 
more opium is consumed per capita" he says, "in the 
United States than is used in Europe, according to 
Federal statistics. This is something for the country 
to ponder over. It is an astonishing fact. 

"Statistics show that Germany and France each use 
17,000 pounds of opium annually; Italy 6,000 pounds; 
Australia 3,000 pounds; Portugal 2,000 pounds and 
the United States the alarming and shameful total of 
470,000 pounds annually. 

"In fact since these statistics were compiled, the 
total consumption of opium in this country has in- 
creased to more than 500,000 pounds ... This does 
not include the large amount smuggled into this 
country every year." 

When we consider that a great portion of our drugs 
are manufactured in Europe and sent hither, the 
comparison becomes astounding, and must raise disr 
quieting questions in the minds of the most indifferent 
of our people. , 

Why should the comity of nations known as the 
Anglo-Saxons become drug fiends, while the Euro- 
peans remain sober ? Can we cope with the situation 
or has it grown beyond our reach? 



A COMPARISON 



207 



The answer to the former question can probably be 
determined by studying the European conditions; the 
answer to the second by studying our own. 
, Dr. Hamilton says that drug addiction is peculiarly 
an American habit and largely attributable to our 
strenuous life with its concentrated activity through- 
out the day, and late hours at night with consequent 
loss of sleep. 

One who is an addict, himself, declares that the 
people of this continent are "the most curious in the 
world: the direct lineal descendants of Eve. They 
want to taste and live — or taste and die. While still 
in their 'teens, they have exhausted all the "thrills" 
the world can afford, and seek if happily — or un- 
happily — they may find others within the spell and 
counter-spell of "the drug." 

While doubtless, these statements are true, still they 
would be equally applicable to the young Frenchman 
as compared with the young American, and if we are 
to find the actual solution we must go further afield 
than New York or Montreal, and dig deeper. Look- 
ing to the solution and cure of drug addiction, this 
phase of the matter is one that should engage the im- 
mediate and unremitting attention not only of our 
physicians, psychiatrists and philanthropists, but of 
the officials at Ottawa, Washington and London. 



BLACK SMOKE 



209 



CHAPTER XL 



BLACK SMOKE. 



"A sweet boy promised to marry me 
But he went away and left,"— Song of Annam. 

IT is often said that you cannot believe an addict 
on oath. While the word of an addict should not 
outweigh the obvious trend of evidence in the case, 
as a general thing, he does not differ materially from 
other prisoners who come before the courts — that is 
to say, he tells the truth when it suits him. If he has 
been convicted and is looking for leniency, he will 
tell all he knows concerning the trade. 

Where a white addict falls into the clutches of the 
law and wants his daily bolus, there is no such thing 
as secrecy. We use the words "white addict" with 
advisement, for a Chinaman is seldom talkative. Even 
to his counsel, unless perfectly sure of him, the China- 
man's heart is a fountain sealed. 

In the statement of Betty M , here following, 

the charges concerning the pedlars were found to be 
true, we having taken the trouble to verify them. All 
the members of the Ring were known to the Federal 
Department of Health, and one of these was arrested 
a f ortnight later with several thousand dollars' worth 
of drugs in his possession. : 

The Department also had knowledge of the opera- 
tions of the Winnipeg physician who supplied Betty 

208 



with the habit-forming drugs, and took the necessary 
steps to stay his headlong trade of wickedness. 

It can be seen from this story that Winnipeg has 
no monopoly of the medical dopeseller, the pest being 
a widely spread one. The average well-conducted 
physician, whether British or American must, indeed, 
feel it bad enough to belong to the same species as 
such, but almost unbearable to belong to the same 
profession. 

Betty had borne a son to the Chinaman of this 
story, and the child had been sent to the Orient for 
education. If one has imagination, there are long 
thoughts to be worked out concerning this white child 
who was sent to its yellow grandparents in China. 

The girl, in quick-fingered fashion, had taken some 
wearing apparel from a down-town flat, and while the 
detectives were searching for her, word was telephoned 
to the police station that a girl had taken an over- 
dose of morphine in a drug store and was in a state 
of collapse. The girl was Betty. 

After her trial and conviction, she earnestly desired 
to make a statement to me and was permitted so to 
do. She was sentenced to a month in jail, but it was 
arranged that, after serving this term, she should 
spend three months with the Sisters of Charity, until 
some steps could be taken looking to her rehabilitation. 
We had hoped she would break the connection with 
the Chinaman, but to this proposal she stubbornly 
refused. 

Later, Betty ran away from the convent, but was 
arrested at Calgary and served another term of six 
weeks in prison. 



210 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



When released therefrom, she found that Tai You, 
her lover, had disappeared and so, hoping to find him, 
left at once for British Columbia. It has been ru- 
mored that her search for him is in vain, Tai having 
returned to China. 

When he first became acquainted with Betty, this 
young Chinaman was comparatively rich, but at the 
time I came to know him she had dissipated his wealth 
to such an extent that he was almost bankrupt. 

As he strove to control the girl's irritability and 
cowering agitation, while arranging her bail at the 
police station, he was noticeably a strong intelligent 
man, and one with a wide patience. 

One becomes especially disquieted — almost terrified 
— in face of these things, for it sometimes seems as 
if the white race lacks both the physical and moral 
stamina to protect itself, and that maybe the black 
and yellow races may yet obtain the ascendancy. 

Indeed, this seems possible— even probable — unless 
the enslavement which comes from these abhorrent 
and debasing narcotics can be strongly and speedily 
dealt with. And yet, the ignorance concerning the 
scope and nature of the menace is known and recog- 
nized by only a few of our people. 

The people of the Orient have, however, learned 
this bitter lesson and it was Chum, once the Viceroy 
of Canton,, who said "The opium eater is one of the 
dead not yet buried/* 

The taking of opium or morphine by a white man 
is the synonym of ruin. It leaves him without even 
the rudiments of a soul, and physically a derelict 



BLACK SMOKE 



211 



In the story The Gate of the Hundred Sorrows, 
Kipling makes the white man tell of its effects like 
this: 

"Nothing grows on you so much, if you're 
white, as the black smoke. A yellow man is 
made different. Opium doesn't tell on him 
scarcely at all, but white and black suffer a good 
deal. Of course, there are some .people that the 
Smoke doesn't touch any more than tobacco 
would at first. They just doze a bit, as one would 
fall asleep naturally, and next morning they are 
almost fit for work. Now I was one of that sort 
when I began, but I've been at it for five years 
pretty steadily, and it's different now . . . The 
Black Smoke does not allow of much other busi- 
ness, and even though I am very little affected 
by it, as men go, I couldn't do a day's work now 
to save my life." 
Omitting the form of affidavit, the following is the 

statement of Elizabeth M (Betty Tai You), 

made before me on January 13th, 1921 : 

"By the Court. 

(Q). Your name? 

(A). Betty Tai You. 

(Q)- Where do you reside? 

(A). On M Avenue with Tai You, a Chinaman. 

I have lived with him for five years. He was edu- 
cated for a school teacher and is good to me. 
.(Q). Are you married to him? 

(A). No, but we have a little boy four years old. 

Tai sent him to China to be educated. I want to 



212 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



marry Tai, but he says I have to give up using drugs. 
(Q), Then Tai does not use drugs? 
(A), No! he gets angry with me and breaks my 
hypo, and burns my drugs, but sometimes when I am 
very bad, he gives me money to buy more. We used 
to live in a block, but I cried and made a fuss when 
I could not get enough "M" or "C", so we moved to 
a house where no one would hear me. 

When I get a craving I make a noise. That is why 
I smashed the door of the police station on the South 
Side, I had a craving and was "goofey." 
(Q). Does Tai buy the drugs for you from his 
friends ? 

(A). The worst place here for dope is the Chinese — . 
W is the head of it. I won't tell on the China- 
men; they are all good to me. They are nearly all 
Tai's cousins. 

There is a man here who hides it in a bed that 

folds into the wall. He is at the X Hotel on the 

second floor. His girl is with him now. She smokes 

"hop." I don't know her name. She looks like a 

French girl and has long skinny arms and legs. 

(Q). Where do your people live? 

(A). I have a sister in Winnipeg. She is a nurse 

in a hospital. My father is dead. Mother lives in 

Minneapolis. 

(Q) . Tell me Betty, how you first came to use drugs ? 

(A). I had a nervous breakdown when I was fifteen 

and Dr. O. O. of the Hospital broke me into 



BLACK SMOKE 



213 



i 



BE 


1 drugs. He is a specialist in women's diseases. I , 
1 was in bed for three months and I got four pills a | j 





day. I couldn't tell you to this day what they were ; 
whether one-quarter grain, or one-eighth grain, be- 
cause I didn't know anything about it. 
(Q). How did you come to Canada? 
(A). I came myself. I did some clerical work in 
Brandon for awhile. I had been going to the High 
School in Minneapolis. I was sick in Brandon and 
went to my sister in Winnipeg. 
(Q). What did you do in Winnipeg? 

(A). I went to see Dr. Z . 

(Q). And what did he say to you? 
(A). He asked me what kind of pills I was taking: 
how big they were and if they were white pills? And 
I had the box that I had got them from the drug store 
in, and I showed it to him, and he said "Do you kno^ 
what is the matter with you ?" 
I said "No, I don't." 

He said "You have a habit for morphine." 
He asked me how many I had been taking a day, 
and I could not tell what amount they were, but I 
took four pills. 

(Q). What happened then Betty? 

(A). Then Dr. Z continued giving me these 

pills. He would write prescriptions five or six grains 

at a tim@ and when I was done with them I could get 
more. 

(Q). How long would five or six grains last you ? 

(A). I wasn't bad on it like I am now. It would 

probably do me two or three days. 

(Q). How long were you with Dr. Z of 

Winnipeg ? 



214 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



BLACK SMOKE 



215 



(A). For about a month or five weeks until I was 
acquainted there; and then, through going to his 
office, I met some other people that he had been 
writing prescriptions for drugs. You meet lots 
of people going in and out of the city, peddling these 
drugs all over Canada. They buy in big quantities. 

After that I stopped going to Dr. Z and I was 

able to get it like that. 

(Q). Do you remember the people you used to meet 

at his office ? What were their names ? 

(A). Yes! There was one little fellow, Gus B , 

and Sam W — — , but they are both dead now. And 

Marie G -, and Babe N and her husband, 

Charlie N and Barney H- 



-. They all got pre- 
scriptions there, and Gladys M— and Marie J—. 

(Q). Is that Gladys M who jumped in the 

river here? 

(A). It might be. She has been in trouble lots of 

times. Marie, a little dark girl who looks like a 

half-breed, used to go around with her. 

(Q). They all got prescriptions from Dr. Z— — ? 

(A). Yes, until they found they could get it cheaper 

from the pedlars. The pedlars would buy in big 

amounts ; would bring it to Winnipeg and then would 

dish it out in small packages. We would call these 

"decks," but some people call them "bindles." 

(Q). Where would the pedlars get it? 

(A). I don't know. Montreal, I believe they go for 

it. They used to bring it back by the trunkful. 

(Q). From Montreal? 

(A). Yes, and from across the Line for awhile, but 



that was put a stop to. They used to get cocaine and 
wrap it in packages and the girls would go and sell 
it in the United States. 
(Q). Did you ever sell any? 

(A). No. They used to make a little vest, tight to 
their skin, all little pockets, just big enough for a 
package to go in, and then put the packages in them, 
so if they got searched at the Border or anything, 
they wouldn't bother them. 

(Q). Who supplied the girls with money to buy the 
drugs? 

(A). The fellows they were with. It doesn't cost 
so much to buy it in big quantities, and they didn't sell 
it straight. They mixed flour, and sugar of milk and 
boracic acid, and things like that with it. Cocaine 
you can buy for forty-five dollars an ounce. 
(Q)- Where do you buy it at that price? 
(A). They buy it all over. I couldn't buy it my- 
self, but I know what they paid for it. 
(0). Do you know the names of those men who are 
supplying money to the girls? 
(A). Well, I have given them. 
(Q). Those are the. men who are supplying the 
money ? , 

(A). Yes. They make one ounce of cocaine into 155 
packages, but sometimes they make 200 packages, and 
sell it for a dollar a package. 

(Q). Where did you go when you left Winnipeg? 
(A). I came up here with Tai You. 
(Q). And Tai has been pretty good to you? 
(A). He has been awfully good to me. So many 



216 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



people have ideas that the Chinese are all uneducated 
and stupid like those in laundries. 
(Q). Where did you live when you came to 
Edmonton ? 

(A). I stopped at the Hotel till I went to the 

hospital. That was when I got the boracic acid and 
the cocaine mixed. I was pretty sick. 
(Q). Where were you buying your drugs in 
Edmonton ? 

(A). From W.B. in the Cafe. He is a little 

skinny fellow, thin, yellow faced. He smokes opium. 
That is the headquarters for it here. They hide it 
in the coal. "Winnipeg Slim" sells morphine for 

$60.00 an ounce. He stays at the R Rooms when 

here. He was here two weeks ago, but went to Sas- 
katoon, but said he was coming back again. 
(Q). Where did you get your drugs next? 

(A). From Dr. X.Y. in the N Block. He used 

to give me from 92 to 100 grains of morphine a week. 
(Q). How many grains did you get each day? 
(A). I usually got 13 grains. I got the prescrip- 
tions filled at the Drug Store. 

(Q). Did you get this amount on one prescription? 

(A). No, I would go back two or three times a day. 

Sometimes, he was away and I could not get him. 

Often, I would write them myself and he would sign 

his name. 

( Q ) . He would give you the pad ? 

(A). I would get his pad and pen and write it out 

and he would sign his name. Sometimes he pretended 

he would not give me any morphine, but he was only 



BLACK SMOKE 



217 



trying "to keep face." He always gave it to me in 
the end, but I have had to get on my knees first. Tai*s 
cousins like to "keep face" with me too, but that was 
because Tai told them to Siwash me. 
(Q). What does it mean to "Siwash" you? 
(A). The Siwashes are Indians in British Columbia. 
They can't get whiskey because they are Indians. 
(Q). Oh! I see, Lassie, Tai inhibited you. 
(A). I don't know, only I had to coax hard some- 
times to get the stuff. 

(Q). How much did the doctor charge you for each 
prescription ? 
(A). $2.00. 

( Q) . Then you would pay him $6.00 a day ? 
(A). Yes, and it cost me seventy-five cents for the 
tube of morphine. There were six and a quarter 
grains in one tube. They were quarter-grain tablets. 
The prescriptions and vials of morphine cost me $8.25 
per day. 

(Q). Where did you get the money? 
(A). My jewellery that Tai gave me; I pawned 
every bit of it. I had diamond rings, a cameo ring, 
an American gold-piece ring, brooches, ten karat chain 
and lockets. They are all gone. 
(Q). Did Dr. X.Y. know this? 
(A). I mentioned it to him two or three times, that 
I was short and would have to pawn my ring, and he 
just took it as a joke. 

(Q). Did he ever take any of them for payment? 
(A). No. 
(Q). He was hard on you, was he? 



218 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



BLACK SMOKE 



219 



(A). His heart never softened very much for me. 

I don't think he ever gave me a pill that I didn't pav 

for. 

(Q). Did Tai give you any money? 

(A). Yes, Tai helped me a lot. 

( Q ) , Are you still going to Dr. X. Y. ? 

(A). No. He left town for some company work. 

Then I started to use hyoscine and codein to break off 

from the morphine. I used to go to Dr. 's office. 

He treated me there, but nothing went out 

(Q)- What did he give you? 

( A) . He gave me all the substitutes I asked for. 

(Q). What were these? 

(A). Hyoscine, codein, dionine, digitalis, strychnine, 

nitro-glycerine and other things which I forget. I 
couldn't take them out though. 

(Q). Were these drugs to break you off morphine 
and cocaine? 

(A). Yes. 

(Q). But you had opium pills, and cocaine in your 

possession when you collapsed in 's drug store? 

The police matron took these out of your powder puff. 
(A). Yes! I said I was "trying" to break off. I 
didn't succeed very well and got all I could pay for. 
If I couldn't afford both, I always bought morphine. 
Sometimes when I was sick, I got another girl to 
buy the stuff for me, but I would have to give her 
half as a kind of payment. I suffer awfully if I have 
to do without it and want to kill myself. 
(Q). When you take cocaine, what is its particular 
effect? 



(A) Coke "bugs." I get them under the skin, 
generally in the back. I do silly things then. That 
was how I came to take those things out of Mrs. 

B 's flat. I didn't want them at all, but was just 

"goofey." 

(Q). Do you want to give up these drugs, Betty? 
Are you willing to be helped by going into an institu- 
tion ? 

(A). I want to get better, Mrs. Murphy, but I just 
couldn't stand it. I'd like to get better for Tai to 
marry me. 

(Q). Wouldn't you rather go back to your mother 
in Minneapolis? I could get you deported as an un- 
desirable alien. 

(A). No! No! I will never leave Tai. Please don't 
send me back. Please don't. I'll try hard to give up 
things. 

(Q). Is there anything more you would like to tell 
me before the matron takes you downstairs? 
(A), I have told you all I can think of. Please do 
not send me to the States." 



COCAINE 



221 



CHAPTER XII. 



COCAINE. 



Your people should be told, then; 
"Here is one 

Who would corrupt the rose of Lesbian yon ; 
Who leaves a blight upon our homes." 

— Arthur Stringer. 

££ /COCAINE," says Abraham C. Webber, "is the 

V>|most virulent of the habit-forming drugs. It 
makes maniacs and criminals. Outrages on women in 
certain sections of America are directly traceable to ex- 
cessive use of cocaine. ... It produces in criminals 
the most unusual forms of violence and abnormal 
crime. In resisting arrest, a cocainist will not hesi- 
tate to murder." 

Cocaine was introduced to America about thirty- 
five years ago, its anaesthetic properties being dis- 
covered by Keller, but its danger to the public was 
not made known until several years later* when it 
became a habit through the medium of "catarrh cures." 

Laws were enacted in the different State legislatures 
providing safeguards for its use, and penalties for its 
abuse. 

At the present time, the annual consumption in the 
United States of coca leaves, from which cocaine is 
obtained, amounts to over a million pounds. This 
amount produces approximately 150,000 ounces, which 
has been computed as sufficient to furnish every man, 

220 



woman and child with 2y 2 doses. Seventy-five per 
cent, of the cocaine manufactured is used for illicit 
purposes. These figures do not include the quantity 
smuggled into the country. 

Of later years, cocaine has been considered a luxury 
to be indulged in at "snow" or "coke parties." The 
effects of these orgies on the participants are various, 
but always deplorable, making for perverted senses 
and the enfeeblement of the will. Cocaine ultimately 
vitiates all the relations of life. 

An addict once told me that in attending a party, 
he finds after "hitting the snow" he is filled with a 
sense of super-optimism. 

"Ah! how can I explain it to you?" he asked. "The 
first effect is thrilling and accelerating. The mind is 
quickened. Everything roseate. Summer is always 
here. I am never poor. In this mood, I am impelled 
to make wagers freely and to wag a very intemperate 
tongue. I was at 'a sniffing party' in London, Eng- 
land the night the Lusitania was sunk, and wagered 
with a fellow £50 to £5 that the United States would 
declare war in forty-eight hours. Then I offered to 
lick him to enforce my bet. If I had not been in a 
state of semi-insanity from the dope, I would have 
known the wager was an impossible one and would 
have saved my money. Under the spell, I am always 
unable to distinguish between congruous and in- 
congruous." 

"And how do you feel when the drug has loosened 
its spell ?" I asked, "what is the counter-spell ?" 

"When the excitant effect has worn away, I feel 



222 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



as though squirrels were walking over my back, or if 
I am outside, I argue to myself that I am being pelted 
with rain-drops. My super-optimism is succeeded by a 
corresponding depression — a feeling of terror and 
doom. In this state, I have hallucinations and see 
things or have double-vision. At other times I ob- 
serve rays coming off different objects. If I stare at 
a door, presently there is some specific envisionment. 
The door opens and a head comes in, or perhaps 
several heads. A white flower in someone's button- 
hole may become an angel. Out-of-doors, more than 
once, I have been chased far down the street by ter- 
ribly hostile trees." 

Another addict related to me how for three days 
his brain was a phonographic record, the words from 
which blotted out all other sounds. While indulging 
heavily in cocaine, he had been listening to men play 
poker for three days. Their jargon had become so 
firmly a part of his brain that he could hear almost 
nothing but such expressions as "Bet you a hundred !" 
or "What have you got in the hole?" 

When his wife spoke to him he would say, "Don't 
you know you shouldn't speak when people are 
playing?" 

"My greatest sufferings," explained this man, "have 
come from the idea that people have 'got wise' to me. 
This has caused me to suffer a living hell and has made 
me feel like killing them." 

"How else do you suffer?" I asked, "what are the 
pangs of a cocaine user ?" 

"Starvation!" he explains jerkily. "When using 



COCAINE 



223 



'coke' for several days, I don't eat. No addict does, 
and so I become weak and thin. I get low in vitality 
— so low that if you put out your hands and touched 
me suddenly, I would feel as if bolts of electricity 
had passed into me. The magnetism of your body 
would, hurt me." 

"Tut!" I ejaculate, "this is only a form of delu- 
sional insanity. Nearly all cocainists tell me of elec- 
trical influences that are hostile." 

"This may be so, too," and here he grinned 
crookedly, "please don't say 'Tut!' so sharply. It feels 
exactly like the point of a knife to me." 

II. 

Among the 'teen age boys and girls, the story of the 
party has been told by a gentleman in the State of 
Washington. "The business starts with the boy," he 
says, "especially the boy who can get his dad's auto- 
mobile car and knows how to run it. The dope seller, 
ever looking for new fields to conquer, will inform 
the boy if he can get a party of boys in a car, the boy 
will be enabled to have a lot of fun with them at a 
'coke' party. The pedlar will go even farther and 
will supply the 'shot/ . . . On the second occasion, 
the pedlar is there, not to give free dope, but to sell 
it. The boys of last night become the propagandists 
of to-day, for, strangely enough, the dope addict im- 
mediately develops a mania for recruiting others. 
When a host is told by his guest that he does not take 
a drink, the host invariably commends his good sense 
and pours one for himself. No so the addict. He 
thirsts for converts." 

8 



224 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Not long ago, in Montreal, a man died from the 
effect of an overdose of drugs taken at a dope party, 
which resulted in one of the party being charged with 
manslaughter. 

In the Canadian city in which I live, it has been 
calculated that several hundred persons attend "snow 
parties" weekly, or about a half of one per cent, of the 
population. Although the seaport cities have a trebled 
incidence, these figures may be taken as fairly repre- 
sentative of the party goers. This computation does 
not, however, include the addicts who are using allied 
narcotics or who have become confirmed users of 
cocaine. It would be safe to add another half of one 
per cent, to cover this number. 

Persons who are not posted could hardly credit 
these statements but officials having intimate informa- 
tion know them to be fairly accurate. 

These parties are held in livery stables or garages, 
in empty box-cars, in opium joints, supper-rooms, or 
private apartments, attics, cellars or almost any place 
that can be locked against surprises, and generally re- 
sult in much foolish conversation and more foolish 
laughter. Tongues are light as leaves and, for that 
matter, so are heads. Indeed,, and it may be said 
generally of the participants what Margot Asquith 
said of a statesman of her day, "Whatever Dilke's 
native impulses were, no one could ever say he con- 
trolled them." 

In order that the symptoms and habits of cocaine 
may be known to parents and to others, we would 
point out that after a large dose, muscular spasms of 



COCAINE 



225 



the face are noticeable and the pupils of the eyes be- 
come dilated. A motor restlessness becomes apparent 
and in this condition the cocainist will walk long dis- 
tances, realizing this afterwards by his sore muscles 
and weariness. As the drug tolerance increases, loss 
of appetite, dyspepsia, insomnia, loss of memory, and 
inability to concentrate the mind are noticeable symp- 
toms. The end is a state of extreme melancholia or of 
mania. 

Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart, Medical Superintendent of 
the Bethlehem Royal Hospital, London, says of co- 
caine users, "In conjunction with a general feeling of 
depression, the judgment is warped so that the patients 
get the idea that the hand of every man is against 
them ; they become anxious and fear all manner of im- 
pending harm. Especially are wives distrusted and 
accused of infidelity. The patients are often impulsive 
and violent; they may wilfully destroy valuable pro- 
perty by reason of some fantastic delusion ; they may 
murderously attack their supposed persecutors or com- 
mit suicide to escape them." 

Dr. Stoddart says further that, on abstaining from 
the drug, some patients complain of pains in the limbs, 
mostly in the joints, and that there may be hallucina- 
tions of hearing. "This drug," he says, "is so en- 
slaving that relapse occurs even more frequently than 
with morphia. Cocaine paranoia is liable to last 
several months and a few patients become permanently 
insane." 

Cocaine addiction is more easily cured than other 
forms, and for this reason pedlars prefer to deal with 



226 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



opium or morphia addicts. A cocaine "fan" can go 
to a hospital or the country and break himself off the 
drug. An addict who is a man of marked culture 
and who has tried all kinds of sleep-producing drugs, 
tells us that a Chinaman will spend ten dollars a day 
to make an opium addict so as to secure his permanent 
enslavement. 

"I can give up cocaine/' he continued, "but when 
anyone speaks to me of doing so, my body starts to 
ache and I get 'the needles'— that is to say a mixture 
of nerves and muscles. There is no great physical 
re-action though; the habit is a dissipation, or a kind 
of mental craving. One desires the feeling of optim- 
ism or of content it inspires, and to be able to live in 
the past. I enjoy, too, the feeling of tastes and the 
seeing of sounds. My senses become confused so that 
a disagreeable odor may be like a perfume." 

"If you can relinquish the habit without excessive 
suffering, why not do so?" I urge. 

"Once I did," he makes answer; "I went to the 
country where no cocaine was obtainable, and drove 
a steam-plough for three months. I became strong as 
a champion, but the tortures attending the drug ad- 
jurement were not Comparable with those endured in 
the endless following of the long, long furrows which 
presented nothing upon which I could turn my 
thoughts. Increasingly, I became filled with a kind of 
self -fed fury till, ultimately, I returned to the city and 
to my wonted indulgence. Some day, to effect a cure, 
I intend shutting myself up for a week or two with a 
lot of food and a large bath-tub. I really intend to do 
it you know." 



COCAINE 



in 



"Were you not ashamed of returning to addiction 
disease, once you had become rid of it?" I query 
further. "How. could you do so terrible a thing ?" 

"Yes ! I was ashamed, I felt that I ought to be dead 
but I wasn't. I could have committed suicide, but, 
after all, this wOuld not have been important to any- 
one, not even to myself." 

"What did you do then?" I asked. "Having put 
your hand to the plough and having turned back both 
literally and metaphorically, to what work did you 
next turn?" 

"Nothing much, Til admit, nothing but the writing 
of letters. Nearly all cocaine dopers write long letters, 
and keep on writing them, especially after an injection. 
You get 'lit up' then, and your mind becomes un- 
usually alert, 

"Several of our most popular writers are cocainists. 
I can tell it from their fine-spun theories, and from the 
minute delineation of their characters. These writers 
work out plots in great detail and with almost super- 
human cunning, especially where the plot relates to 
the detection of crime. Ultimately, such writers be- 
come spiritualists." 

"No! No!" he replies without my having asked the 
question, "Cocaine will not put brains into a numskull, 
but it stimulates the brain. Also, it awakens every 
evil passion and accentuates it." 

"But some of us think spiritualists may have de- 
lusions without cocaine," I make comment. "There 
was that man, who last week shot one of our policemen 
and now it turns out this man had been attending 



228 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



spiritual seances, and had become imbued with the 
theory of mediums," # 

"There may not be any sequence between cocaine 
and spiritualism;' answered the addict, "this maybe 
one of my delusions too, but I am sure a parallel exists 
in that both are straight on the road to Endor. You 
know the lines, don't you? 

"Oh! the road to Endor is the oldest road 

And the craziest road of all, 
Straight it runs to the witch s abode, 

As it did in the days of Saul, 
And nothing has changed the sorrow in store, 

For such as go down the road to Endor. 

II. 
"Speaking of detectives and their cunning," con- 
tinued the addict, "every cocainist is considered a big 
fellow as he can succeed in 'dousing the stuff.' Ah, 
Madam; by evading the police we get justice— also 

drugs. 

"A soldier-fellow whom I know boasts that he was 
in jail for a month and lit up' every day. He has 
some kind of a metal plate in his back over which he 
wears two chamois pads, these being held in place by 
buckles and straps. In these pads he carries his sup- 
ply against emergencies. Ye£t that was a wise old 
chap who said 'Common sense is to seize the inevitable 
and make use of it.' 

"A woman I know keeps a supply in her cellar m 
the water-tank just beneath the water-line. The bottle 
is the same color as the water so that if you looked 
in the tank you would not notice it. This woman gives 
parties, but she always charges for the stuff; also she 



COCAINE 



229 



is very arrogant and mean to the middle of her bones. 
Money has been spoken of as a very desirable form 
of power, but let me tell you here, Madam, that to 
exercise the power and insolence of a supreme po- 
tentate, all one needs is a company of clamorous 
addicts and a stock of cocaine or morphine." 

"Where do you gQt drugs when you go to a strange 
city ?" I ask, "how do you make the connection ?" 

"Ho, la ! being an addict and carrying the signs on 
my white and very facile face, I can get it almost 
anywhere. If I have not connected with a drug store, 
physician or some illicit dealer, I can nearly always 
secure it in a dance hall or cabaret. Often, I get it 
from the musician's 'wife/ who stands around and 
waits till her man is through with his part in the or- 
chestra or whatever his turn may be. Usually, what 
she lacks in morals she makes up in suavity. No one 
suspects her of peddling, and no one suspects me of 
purchasing for I cache 'the drift' of coke in the 
finger of my glove or in some equally casual place. 
It is clumsy to putter around with pockets and purses 
when you 'make the meet' ; the police might get you, 
although, on the whole, buying dope is really a modest 
undertaking and not fraught with any more terrors 
than buying potatoes." 

"Then cocainists are not greatly afraid of the po- 
lice," I remark with a rising inflection that suggests 
an answer. 

"That I can hardly tell you," he replies. "It de- 
pends upon the person's mental condition and what the 
probabilities of detection are. In many places, the 



230 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



police seem absolutely impervious to the traffic; or do 
not know how to go about the rounding up of either 
dopers or pedlars/' 

Perhaps this addict is right in his opinion of us, for 
in Canada, 70% of the thieves are either undiscovered 
or acquitted. Most of these thieves are drug addicts 
who steal again as soon as they are released. The 
profession of malefactor has become a profitable one 
in this Dominion, the emoluments being large. The 
forger, bootlegger, thief, drug pedlar, and white slaver 
wax fat in the land in spite of our police surveillance. 
Aye! Aye! it were a fine thing to be King of Canada, 
and to make these criminals run for their villain lives. •'; 

In my opinion, apart from the lack of point, the 
police methods are much too easeful. The drug traffic 
will never be destroyed until the police are given more 
arbitrary powers than at present. Then, too, if there 
were more men on the morality squads to round up 
these abandoned dangerous crooks, there would be less 
need for patrolmen. 

Whenever a drug case is being heard, the court is 
filled with addicts and pedlars, so that even a magis- 
trate may be shocked by the weird look of the 
"goofey" audience. These occasions would seem to 
be propitious for snapping the pictures of "runners" 
and "rats" but, as yet, I have never seen it done. Per- 
haps, they do so in some cities with the idea of running 
them down. Let us hope so. When all of us get 
really into our stride, we shall never overlook a point 
of vantage in this grim and desperate game. 



i 



COCAINE 
III. 



231 



There is only one way to cure the cocaine evil, and 
that is for its manufacture to be barred all the world 
over. It no longer has legitimate use, having been 
displaced by novocaine, stovaine and other agencies 
which paralyse and benumb tissues when applied lo- 
cally. These are less dangerous, also, and without the 
possibility of becoming a habit. 

That its manufacture can be barred is shown by a 
discussion which took place at the Hague Convention 
of 1912. At this convention the necessity of dealing 
with the traffic in opium was discussed because it had 
become "a scourge spreading economic ruin, and 
moral as well as intellectual degradation." 

Great Britain insisted that the study of morphine 
and cocaine was as important as opium and that the 
morphine and cocaine evil would increase if only 
opium was considered. Italy suggested similar study 
as to hasheesh Or Indian hemp. Emphasizing the Bri- 
tish position it was learned that "beginning with the 
suppression of the opium vice in China and other far 
eastern countries, a determined and calculated effort 
was made by the manufacturers of morphine and co- 
caine to introduce these drugs in replacement of opium. 
Such efforts had largely succeeded, and the world was 
presented the spectacle of many great Governments 
willingly sacrificing or providing for the sacrifice of 
an aggregate annual opium revenue in the neighbor- 
hood of one hundred million dollars, only to see the 
subjects of some of them pressing two other deadly 
drugs into the hands of those far eastern people who 



232 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



had heroically determined and were bent upon the 
abandonment of the opium vice." 

The Hague Convention thereupon agreed on a 
general course of action to become operative through- 
out the world, looking to the regulation of the 
manufacture and disposition of morphine and cocaine. 

Since then, the signatories to this pledge have been 
enabled to place a limit upon the imports through 
legitimate channels, even if the underground methods 
remain, as yet, vastly out of hand. 

That the signatories, whether through the Hague 
Convention or the League of Nations, shall ultimately 
deal with the suppression of an unnecessary and deadly ; 
drug like cocaine, can hardly be doubted, and certainly 
should not be delayed. 

The same applies to all narcotics. International 
agreement— or maybe we should say, international 
disarmament— concerning narcotics, seems the only 
satisfactory solution of this especially disquieting 
problem. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



GIRLS AS PEDLARS. 

But, Othello, speak; 
Did you by indirect and forced courses 
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections, 
Or came it by request, and such fair question 
As soul to soul affordeth? 

— Shakespeare. 

MUCH has been said, of late, concerning the 
entrapping of girls by Chinamen in order to 
secure their services as pedlars of narcotics. The im- 
portance of the subject is one which warrants our 
closest scrutiny: also, it is one we dare not evade, 
however painful its consideration. 

Personally, we have never known of such a case. 
It is true, of course, that hundreds of girls are living 
with Chinamen, and are peddling drugs, but almost 
invariably the girl has put herself in the way by visit- 
ing Chinese chop-suey houses, or other places of 
business. 

Generally speaking, the girl goes to the Chinaman 
because she has learned the drug habit and wants to 
get her drugs secretly. At first; she doesn't know 
what is before her : later she doesn't care. 

It is not true, however, that a white girl or woman 
who is keeping to her own preserves is hunted like 
game, stalked to windward, and trapped by the China- 
man in order that she may be bent to his criminal 
purpose, or minister to his libidinous desires. 

233 



234 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



The following statement taken before me very re- 
cently, may seem, at first glance, to be a contradiction 
of this contention but, subsequently the woman in the 
case acknowledged that, while in Calgary and Edmon- 
ton, she had gone to Chinese restaurants of her own 
accord and had asked for work. Because of a quarrel 
with her mother-in-law and her husband, she had fled 
from the United States to Canada without giving 
notice of her intention. This is her story :— 

"X— — Y— — , being duly warned, states as 
follows: — ■ 

"I came to the City of Edmonton from Calgary on 
Saturday last Upon arrival in Edmonton, I stopped 

at the Hotel for three days. I was advised by 

a Chinaman in Calgary to come to Edmonton to make 
some money. I do not know his name. 

"After leaving the Hotel, I went around dif- 
ferent rooming houses in the City. On Wednesday, 
about 8 p.m., a short Chinaman followed me and spoke 
to me. He. asked me to meet him the next day about 
8 p.m., and he would take me to a Chinese laundry. 
I met him at the stated time and he asked me to not 
walk with him, but to follow him. I followed him to 
a laundry near some big warehouses. I do not know 
the street. 

"Upon arrival at the laundry, the Chinaman told 
me to go upstairs. It was dark, and T was afraid. 
He then told me to go in a room and turn on the light." 

The rest of the statement may not be printed but 
concluded with these words, "Then the detectives came 
in. They took the name of the Chinamen, and brought 
m* to the Police Station for investigation." 



GIRLS AS PEDLARS 



235 



The curious-minded reader will desire to know 
what happened after her arrest, and so I shall relate 
the sequel although it is a story without thrills. 

We held the woman in the cells for a week, and 
wired her husband that he was needed in Canada. He 
turned out to be a railway official of striking presence, 
even as she was apparently a woman of culture. 

"Were they reconciled ?" you ask. 

It seemed too much to expect, but, actually, they 
were, so after all, it must be true that "there is a 
Providence even in the city." 

When the man heard what I had to say, and how a 

good man must perforce be a father to his wife as well 

as a husband, he thanked me, crossed the room to 

where she sat in charge of an officer, and led her 

. quietly away. 

This is not much of a story, but still it serves to 
show how a woman went wrong, an v d how she escaped 
the consequences of her wrong-doings. Of course, 
it must remain a problem that such a woman fell in 
such a way. Maybe, she was suffering from dementia 
praecox, a form of insanity which affects young per- 
sons, and leads them to commit crimes. These youth- 
ful dements acquire vicious habits and are unable to 
resist temptation. But then this may be only our 
special viewpoint, for the longer we are engaged in 
judging criminals, the more fully we become per- 
suaded that they are nearly all unbalanced, or at least 
afflicted with some queer mental slant. 

On another occasion, the Mother Superior and one 
of the Sisters of a Catholic Refuge Home brought to 
me a girl aged seventeen who had a Chinese lover. 



236 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



She had been working as a domestic in one of the 
leading homes in the city, and it was found that Woo 
Keen, whose morals were as oblique as his eyes, used 
to call and see her in the mornings before any of the 
members of the household had come down. There is 
a Turkish proverb which advises, "Before you love, 
learn to run through the snow, leaving no footprint." 
Woo Keen had not observed this proverb and his foot- 
prints across the garden plot of unsullied snOw, led to 
his visits being discovered. 

There was no charge which could be preferred 
against either of them but, by special arrangement, 
the girl was placed at the Refuge Home for protection. 

These good women kept her strictly to the grounds 
of the institution but, presently, they found the China- 
man, Woo Keen, to be on campaign, and that he knew 
the exact hour when Pearl was free to take air out- 
doors, and where letters or dainties might be placed 
with a reasonable certainty of her finding them. 

"Did you say her name was Pearl?" I ask of the 
Mother Superior. 

"Yes," she replies, with a slightly perceptible lower- 
ing of her eyes, "but I fear Your Worship may find 
her to be somewhat lacking in the gracious embodi- 
ment her name suggests." 

And so it happened, for as I pulled on her mental 
and moral muscle, it was to find an amazing insensi- 
bility which utterly blighted my highest hopes for her 
retrievement. Also, she had most of the striking in- 
dications of a girl who was needlessly healthy. 

Being excellently wise, the Sisters had set them- 



GIRLS AS PEDLARS 



237 



selves to learn how the Mongolian, Woo Keen, had 
become familiar with the little secrets of their Home, 
such as the hours of rest and recreation. The thing was 
a puzzle that bade fair to remain unsolved until, in 
a moment of unwonted candor, another young miss 
in custody confessed that, at the request of Pearl, she 
used to leave a stamped letter addressed to the China- 
man on the seat of the street-car When the Sisters 
took her to the dentist, in the hope that the finder 
might post it, and the finder always did. 

And, now, the Sisters wanted to know how they 
might save the girl. Like Eve, her primal mother, 
she had become learned in the law even while she 
walked in the garden, and knew that the Refuge 
Home was not "a place of detention," and that no one 
might restrain her however worthy their intentions.^ 
"I am not going back to Woo" she said to me, "I 
am going back to work," 

"Will you work in the country then, or in another 

city?" 

"No, I will work here." 

"If you work with Woo, we shall see that he is 
deported," I threaten. 

"Woo is a Canadian citizen and may not be de- 
ported," she replies. 

In this, she has been perfectly instructed. Woo 
Keen, should it please his fancy, might laugh in his 
westernized sleeve and say, "Gee whizza! Police big 
chumpee. Me Number 1 boy, allight." 

And so Pearl went out to "board" with the white 
woman at whose house she had first met Woo Keen, 



238 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



just as other girls were meeting other Chinamen, and 
none of us could say them nay. 

Pearl will come back to us some day, but it will 
either be as a prisoner or as one who seeks a place to 
die. They all come back, and it is foolish to say, "You 
were warned," or "I told you so." It is better to recall 
for oneself the words of Sa'di, the Persian sage, 
"Whoso hath no patience, hath no wisdom." 

And once, a mother brought some letters her daugh- 
ter had received from Ah Pie, a Chinaman, requesting 
that she call for her washing. He wrote well, framed 
his sentences correctly, and expressed himself with 
deference. 

The girl was an accountant in a well-known business 
house, and of such marked probity of character that 
her mother would not allow her to be even questioned 
on the matter. 

Yet, the happening seemed to require an explanation 
from the girl in that she never sent her laundry to 
Ah Pie ; that the letters had been addressed at intervals 
to both her former and latter places of residence, and 
because she had never shown the epistles to her 
mother, their discovery being accidental. 

The more one studies the subject, especially when 
all the facts are available, the more one is convinced, 
that in the marital relations between white women and 
men of color, the glove is always thrown by the 
woman, or, at least deliberately dropped, 

"What difference does it make ?" you ask. 

Mot a great deal. In any event, the girl becomes an 
outcast from her people. If not already a drug user, 



GIRLS AS PEDLARS 



239 



she drifts into the habit, or becomes an agent for the 
distribution of inhibited drugs. Almost invariably, 
she becomes another recruit for that army of workers, 
those desperately hard workers in the non-essential 
industry known as prostitution. 

In any study of the problems presented by the drug 
traffic, the relation of the girl pedlar to the yellow man 
is one which cannot be overlooked, and, indeed, it 
seldom is. Usually, we shift the responsibility for 
her fall upon the shoulders of the alien where it does 
not necessarily belong. 

Certain journalists, with all sincerity of purpose, 
have stirred up racial hatred against the Chinamen on 
this account, and have called them beasts and yellow 
dogs. 

Let us punish these foreign immigrants if they de- 
serve it; let us exclude them from our country if our 
policy so impels, but let us refrain from making them 
the eternal scapegoats for the sins of ourselves or of 
our children. It is not the Saxon way. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE. 

"There is a world outside the one you know 
Which for curiousness 'ell can't compare." 

IF the Chinese introduced opium to this continent, 
America has paid them back a thousand-fold in 
very evil coin by teaching them the use of the hypo- 
dermic needle, which enables them to use morphine 
sulphate, the derivative of opium, with comparative 
convenience, and with much less chance of detection. , 
This instrument also enables them to absorb the drug 
more readily into their system, and without its peculiar 
distastefulness. 

Morphine is very bitter, even more bitter than the 
proverbial gall and can hardly be used by the mouth, 
for which reason the needle is almost a necessity. 

Other drug users who cannot afford to purchase the 
drug in tablet form use the ash called Yen she e which 
is the residue of smoked opium. When water is added 
and the solution strained, it is then "shot" into the arm 
in order that the habitues may maintain "a hold over" 
or "keep on the drug." 

If the habitue is even ordinarily cautious he strains 
the solution through filter paper or through cotton^ 
batting before using it. This cotton-batting is care- 
fully hoarded against the rainy day when no money 
is available for the purchase of Yen shee. It is then 
boiled and used for a shot 

240 



THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE 241 

The solution is known in the underworld as "Yen 
shee medicine" and enables an eight-grain morphinist 
to reduce to about three grains and. still be con- 
scious of "thrill" or "rear" in the daily dose. Its 
use, however, is almost certain to cause painful ab- 
scesses and for this reason it is only used by the poorer 
addicts. A close-up sight of the punctures or brand- 
ing marks of the needle is shocking to one who has 
never seen the body of an addict. It has been claimed, 
and it is quite true, that dope "guns" are more de- 
structive to the world than heavy artillery. 

For the uninitiated, it is well to explain more fully 
that morphine sulphate is prepared in both tablet and 
powder form, being soluble in warm water. The ad- 
dict, or "prodder," usually melts the tablet in a tea- 
spoonful of water over gas, a lamp, or a candle and 
draws the warm solution into "the gun." He then 
inserts the needle in his arm or shoulder and presses 
hard on the plunger. The fire-blackened spoon which 
is used for "cooking the shot" is found in the room of 
nearly all addicts. 

Instead of the syringe, the prodder or "rat" some- 
times uses a safety-pin to make the hole in his arm and 
an eye-dropper to insert the solution. These "pin 
shots" are frequently resorted to by the drug slaves 
of the poorer classes who cannot afford to buy a 
hypodermic syringe. Or, if they have a syringe, they 
prefer to spend their money on purchasing drugs 
rather than replacing the broken needles. 

Under the guise of the slow-reduction cure, or the 
ambulatory treatment, certain physicians usually de- 



242 



TH$ BLACK CANDLE 



nominated as "dope doctors," have taught the use of 
the hypodermic needle to their patients, thus enabling 
these to operate it personally. It is wonderful how 
tedious this method may become and how much money 
the unprofessional ruffian can make out of this method, 
especially when the patient is well-to-do. 

Dr. Osier was right when he said that the hypo- 
dermic syringe was too dangerous a weapon to trust 
even to the hands of a nurse. No patient, under any 
circumstances, should use it upon himself. 

Abraham C. Webber, Assistant District Attorney- 
General of Suffolk County, who served on a special 
drug commission, created by the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature has said "without the needle drug addiction' 
would never have made much headway in America. 
The original form of drug dissipation was confined 
to Opium smoking." This distinguished statement 
leaves nothing unsaid. 

It is claimed that at the present time morphine is 
the most popular of all narcotics, and this seems to be 
shown by the replies to the thousands of question- 
naires sent out by the special committee of investiga- 
tion appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury in 
Washington in 1918. The replies from the almshouses 
showed that 111 of the inmates were using gum opium, 
157 smoking opium, 3,072 morphine, 900 heroin, 30 
codein, 75 laudanum, 123 paregoric and 24 cocaine. 
Only 30% of the superintendents of the almshouses 
answered the Government's questions, showing that 
"Uncle Sam" as well as "Jack Canuck" has also a fair 
share of half-baked blunderers in the shape of public 



THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE 243 



officials, the type who adopt a superior attitude when 
asked for information on the drug traffic, or who hide 
their ignorance of it under either silence or an em- 
phatic denial. 

In discussing the above figures with an addict who 
has used all kinds of drugs, he declares these figures 
to be misleading. Nearly all morphinists begin as 
cocainists, and continue to use it Although the alms- 
houses have registered these addicts- as morphinists, a 
closer examination would prove them to be "mixers." 

The effect of morphine, he further claims, is largely 
physical, while that of cocaine is mental. The latter 
counteracts the inertia engendered by the former. 
The cocaine is sometimes injected in a vein, but this 
practice is dangerous and is said to be only practised 
by inured addicts. This is what they call "taking it 
in the heart." Some of these persons do not allow 
the vein to heal up, but on each occasion, lift the con- 
gealed blood sufficiently to again insert the needle. 

The addict who discussed these matters with me is 
a man of position and of marked ability. He does not 
use morphine for any pleasure it affords, but because 
he suffers when it is taken away. To use the correct 
jargon, it has "hooked him." 

"Many addicts," he continues, "find a fascination 
in the hypodermic syringe which is almost inexplicable, 
and play with it as with a toy. Paradoxical as it 
sounds, they like to punish themselves with the needle 
for the pleasure it affords. I think most men like to 
take a moiety of pains with their pleasure, just as 
the mountain climber strains his muscles, freezes his 



244 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



face and endangers his life for the 'something* hidden 
behind the hills." 

"But the pain," I argue, "is so terribly out of pro- 
portion to the pleasure, its use is stupid. Why lick 
honey from such ugly thorns?" A lifting of the eye- 
brows, and a shrug of the shoulders, silence, then this 
statement — "Ah ! I stay with it always— this peaceable 
remedy of human life." 

"It is no remedy," I further insist, "instead of being 
a surcease from cares, the suicide of morphine addicts 
has become so common that in some States of the 
Union it was necessary to amend the section of the 
Poison Law which related to carbolic acid, this being 
their favorite poison." 

"Yes! Yes!" he replies, "people sometimes gtt so 
far as 'a remorse dose/ but I have not reached the 
stage." 

Hypodermic administration leads to other trouble 
than septic poisoning with its loathsome abscesses. The 
common use of the needle by several persons some- 
times causes communicable diseases to be transmitted. 

This common use of the needle is practised in the 
cabaret and dance hall dressing-rooms, or in those of 
a theatre. Frequently the woman in charge of the 
room sells the tablets. 

On the other hand, a large quantity of morphine 
was recently found on the shelves of a rooming house 
kitchen in one of our Canadian cities. The man in 
charge of the place was caught with the hypodermic 
needle in his hands and, according to the police, he 
was openly taking the drugs in the presence of his 



THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE 245 

wife and children. They also allege that this rooming 
house was a distributing centre, although camouflaged 
as the office of a messenger service. 

After the arrests were made, .the detectives an- 
swered several telephone calls asking for narcotics, and 
instructed 'the friends' to call for their drugs, so that 
other arrests were made in a few minutes after the 
callers had handed in their money for the drugs. 

In a fashionable residential district of the satrje 
Canadian city, a woman and man were arrested, on 
which occasion the detectives, over the telephone, took 
the names of twenty-seven well known citizens in the 
same district who were asking for supplies through 
this illicit channel. 

It is claimed that morphinism is frequent among 
nurses, doctors and medical students, who have ex- 
perience with the drug and can obtain it more readily. 
It happens too, that habituated nurses, in order to in- 
dulge themselves with "the stuff" during the night, 
will accustom a chronic patient to the use of the needle, 
and so it frequently happens that the unfortunate pa- 
tient finds himself in slavery to this unsatisfying drug, 
a thousand-fold more painful than his original disease. 
Or the nurse may be merely a sympathetic assuager 
of pain, a person of compliant disposition, who readily 
yields to the wishes of the patient, thus allowing him 
to subside into the debasing indulgence of morphinism, 
or into its leisurely annihilation. 

Several years ago, one of the "prodders" was 
brought to court charged with having morphine il- 
legally in possession. Her son, a boy coming to 



246 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



manly age, accompanied her under a similar charge. 
They had a hypodermic syringe between them and 
both were covered with carbuncles from its use. 

The lad was slack jawed, sodden spirited and lacked 
what physicians describe as "muscular integrity,". 
Also, he was full of tedious words. If we would only 
give him the drug called morphia, he would be our 
father, our mother and our brother to the end of the 
world. He would tell us who were selling drugs. He 
would go out with the police and be "a pigeon" for 
them. Surely we couldn't see him die just for one 
"shot/? surely— ." 

That is an incontrovertible adage of the Orient, 
"Need hath no peer." 

Except for her drooling mouth, the body of the 
woman was emaciated and juiceless. On her face it 
was written how she was an overcomes of evil by 
evil. 

"These are practically dead ones," I say to myself, 
"non-creative, non-productive parasites. Their pur- 
poses are paralyzed. None of us can help them." 
''. Then the woman reminds me how, years and years 
ago, away three thousand miles to the south, she and 
I were girls together and that I had been in her home. 
Wouldn't I release her for the sake of her mother and 
the old times?" 

Yet, because she had disclosed her identity to me 

and had betrayed her family— one of the oldest and 

most honorable in Ontario— I could only feel that she 

had fallen deeper in the social scale. 

"What would her mother have me do?" this was the 



THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE 247 



question. Suddenly, in spite of the moral abyss over 
which she had fallen, she seemed to have a claim upon 
me. Even a magistrate may suffer soul ache and feel 
a piteous perplexity. 

"What would her mother have me do?" Yes, this 
was the question. There was only one answer. The 
sufferer must be freed from drug habituation and 
from the poignancy of her suffering. She must be 
placed in the Provincial Jail. It would have been 
better to send her to an institution for the cure of 
addicts, but we have no such hospitals in this Domin- 
ion, and no one seems to care whether we have or not. 
Indeed, there can be found persons in authority who 
will tell you there is not a dollar in Canada for this 
purpose. 

They were bitter words the woman uttered when I 
imposed a term of months upon her, but these fell 
scatheless upon me, for I knew this severe and unre- 
lenting treatment was, after all, only a demonstration 
of kindness, and maybe of love, for the victim herself. 
In dealing with such cases, the slack hand and the 
lenient rule must ever prove the cruel ones. 

I have never seen her since — this girl companion of 
long ago— but, wherever she is, may the Upholder of 
the Skies have pity on her weakness. 

Another woman who had fallen under the infamous 
enchantment of morphine, came to us a year or so ago, 
and requested a term in j ail. She had t>een taking 
"joy shots" for several years, and had fallen into a 
frenzy of desperation where her one idea was to com- 
mit suicide. As a demonstration of spent humanity, 



248 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



her condition lacked nothing. She had small volition 
and less hope, while her whole appearance was that 
of extreme dejection. It was a drug user, himself, 
who once said that "Of all things which it is odious 
to pay for, a luxury enjoyed in the past is most so." 

This woman, after spending seven months in jail, 
came to see me on her release. 

From a blear-eyed, unutterably lean woman, she had 
become roseate with health. Indeed, she had recovered 
sufficiently to jest about her former desire to commit 
suicide. 

"You see, Mrs. Murphy, I really couldn't let it 
happen, for the city coroner would be sure to say 
'temporary insanity/ and there has never been any of 
that in our family." 

It is alleged that this woman has again returned 
to the use of morphine, but of this I cannot speak with 
certainty. It is not unlikely, however, for Judge 
Cornelius F. Collins of the United States says that 
90% . of all addicts who have been treated in hospitals 
have relapsed after regaining liberty. Dr. Royal S. 
Copeland, Vice-President of the American Health 
Association, thinks that 50% would probably be more 
correct. The general public would be safe to strike 
the mean and say 70%. Addicts return to the habit 
because the pedlars, to get their custom, waylay and 
offer them free drugs. The pedlars boast that it is 
too late for the traffic to be stqpped, their power over 
the populace being tenable against all odds. 

In Canada and Great Britain, no steps have been 
taken to prohibit the sale of hypodermic syringes, but, 



THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE 249 

in some States of the American Union, it is a crime 
to be found unlawfully in possession of one without 
a doctor's prescription. In the State of New York 
the statute reads as follows: "No person except a 
dealer in surgical instruments, apothecary, physician, 
dentist, veterinarian or nurse, attendant or interne of 
a hospital, sanitorium or institution in which persons 
are treated for disability or disease, should at any time 
have or possess a hypodermic syringe or needle, unless, 
such possession be authorized by the certificate of a 
physician issued within the period of one year thereto." 
Undoubtedly, the Opium and Drugs Act of Canada 
should be amended so that the possession of a hypo- 
dermic syringe should bear the same penalty as the 
possession of illicit drugs. 

A manufacturer's agent who covers all parts of 
Canada with his wares said the other day that since 
his last annual trip the demand for hypodermic needles 
had increased over one thousand per cent. Without 
vouching for the absolute correctness of his figures, 
we may safely take it that the increase has been an 

alarming one. 

In Vancouver, it is related recently that a woman 
who was an inveterate drug-user, injected morphine 
into her baby whenever it cried or was troublesome. 
When the infant died, its body was found to be ter- 
ribly punctured by the hypodermic needle. 



CHAPTER XV. 

PRESCRIPTIONS. 
Opprobium M edicorunt.— Juvenal. 

A talented writer who was also a close observer 
^ has remarked, "If we hold faith in gold, not- 
withstanding base metal, let us be assured that no- 
where is that gold found at a higher percentage of 
purity than among doctors. Where one Faun has 
stolen the mantle of .Esculapius as the good sire lav 
sleeping, there are a hundred upon whom he has 
dropped it as upon worthy children." 

That this is true has been evidenced of late by the 
action taken by the medical associations in disciplining 
those of their profession who have been proven guilty 
of a breach of medical ethics in the prescribing of 
opiates. The Harrison Narcotic Law of the United 
States provides that the opiate drugs and cocaine may 
be dispensed by a physician "in the course of his 
professional practice only,". but unfortunately has not 
defined the meaning of these words. 

The decisions of the courts to the present go to 
establish, however, the conclusion that the dispensing 
of opiates to addicts on the pretence of curing addic- 
tion does not constitute proper professional practice 
In discussing this matter, Thomas S. Blair, M D 
has said, "There is a tremendous incidence of 'cancer,' 

250 



PRESCRIPTIONS 



251 



advanced tuberculosis, inoperable surgical conditions, 
post-operative lesions, neglected cases of syphilis with 
aggravated tertiary symptoms, untreated bladder and 
prostatic cases, old focal infections, aggravated cases 
of rheumatoid arthritis, chronic asthma, gall-stone 
disease, painful undiagnosed lesions deeply visceral, 
and it sometimes is imperatively necessary that these 
persons be supplied narcotics, often in ascending 
dosage." , • 

It is clearly not the intention of any Government to 
interfere with such legitimate practice, and no physi- 
cians should be intimidated in the treatment of disease 
or pathological conditions, other than drug addiction, 
including the alleviation of pain. Of course, in such 
cases, the physician to prescribe should be in personal 
attendance and not merely prescribing at a long range. 

According to the Narcotic Regulations No. 35 of the 
United States, a physician is not regarded as in per- 
sonal attendance upon a patient, within the intent of 
the statute unless he is in personal attendance upon 
such patient away from his office. The regulations of 
the State of New York also require that for profes- 
sional treatment of in institutions, before prescribing , 
narcotics, the physician must make thorough physical 
examination and place his notes of the same upon file. 

"Professional practice" of this kind is something 
wholly different from that variety described by a pro- 
minent official in the Department of Narcotic Drug 
Control in New York. This official tells of a narcotic 
practitioner, or what they call a "script" doctor, who 
used to leave the upper sash of his basement window 
lowered so that his patients could toss their registra- 



252 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



tion cards (as addicts) into the opening. Hundreds 
of these cards were gathered up daily by his wife who 
carried them to the doctor. 

When arrested he was found in bed with forty-five 
prescriptions for patients whom he had never seen, 
but from whom he drew a very large revenue. The 
wickedness of such a physician seems hardly suscep- 
tible to amendment. 

This official tells of a doctor who prescribed as many 
as eight hundred emergency prescriptions in one day, 
and of still another who prescribed a grain a day for 
an infant This baby's mother earned her livelihood 
by cleaning drug stores and saloons, leaving the child 
every day on the sidewalk in a perambulator, for four 
hours. The drug was administered to keep the child 
asleep. The doctor had not examined the infant but 
prescribed a grain a day because he supposed it was 
an addict, its mother being one. 

It was also found in New York that one of these 
commercial physicians prescribed in one month 68,282 
grains of heroin, 54,097 grains of morphine and 
30,280 grains of cocaine. 

Dr. Prentice says the practitioner who prescribes 
for people who have, no pathology except that of ad- 
diction, is difficult of apprehension in that he hides 
behind the cloth of a reputable profession. 

Under the pretence of medical treatment for an 
assumed "disease/* he sells his professional privilege 
in a sordid market for a very large return in money. 

Dr. Prentice also tells of a certain professional he- 
wolf, now in the penitentiary, who sold from 100 to 



PRESCRIPTIONS 



253 



2,600 prescriptions a week for ten months, charging 
$3.00 for each. Some of these "scripts" called for as 
much as 500 grains of heroin or morphine at one time. 
"It seems ineluctable, therefore," continues this fine 
crusader, "that a physician who supplies narcotic drugs 
to an addict, knowing him to be an addict, or who 
connives or condones such an act, is either grossly ig- 
norant, or deliberately convicts himself as one of those 
who would exploit the miserable creatures of the ad- 
dict world for sordid gain. It may be that he is him- 
self addicted to the drug and has thus become a vic- 
tim of its power to produce such profound moral per- 
version. For such there can be but one verdict. Sus- 
pend or revoke his license to operate medicine by all 
means. Let him suffer the penalty of the law, and 
may God have mercy on his soul." 

That the opinion of Dr. Prentice is being backed up 
by the judiciary is shown by the heavy, sentences 
imposed on the physicians in the United States, con- 
victed of commercializing in narcotic drugs. 

A sentence of fifteen years was recently imposed 
on one, while nine and ten years respectively were 
imposed upon two others. 

Judge Anderson of the United States Court at In- 
dianapolis recently sentenced a "script" physician to 
two years in the Federal Prison in Atlanta. This man 
had plied his evil trade in the tenderloin district, and 
all his patients were girls from fifteen years of age 
upward. 



254 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



II. 



Such physicians are not peculiar to the United 
States, but flourish in almost every town and city 
in Canada. That they also flourish in England is 
manifest by a report presented in 1921 to the Imperial 
Government, showing that during the year thirty mil™ 
lion prescriptions had been issued. 

These English figures are so appalling, that you, 
perforce, return to re-read them to make sure that you 
have read aright. 

The daughter of wealthy and influential parents, 
gave me the names of eight physicians in one city 
from whom she alleges that she and her girl com- 
panion purchased every other day, prescriptions for 60 
grains of morphine and 30 grains of cocaine. 
^ This girl would be given different names on the 
"scripts." She claimed that when the doctors hesitated 
about giving her the prescriptions, with all the in- 
stincts of the complete trapper, she produced the 
money for them, sometimes giving more than the 
usual charge, and in no such instance was she refused. 
Give me leave here to change this statement some- 
what, for the girl alleges that one of the physicians, 
whose name she mentions, invariably requested that 
she first surrender herself. 

This girl also declares that she purchased many 
vials of morphine tablets from veterinary surgeons 
in different parts of the province and that these tablets 
were larger in size, but not of such good quality as 
those prescribed or dispensed by physicians. 

It is quite clear that the animals treated by the 




Cocaine secreted in cigars not meant to be smoked. 




Cocaine which was found secreted in a doll, a jar of cold cream, 
a cake of soap, and the heel of a slipper. 



PRESCRIPTIONS 



255 



veterinary surgeon cannot get "the habit" and that his 
purchasing or possessing large supplies must inevitably 
raise a question as to his professional integrity. The 
only addicted animal I ever heard of was an Edmonton 
dog which belonged to an old and decrepit Chinaman. 
This canine was wont to play truant from his master, 
making daily visits to a Chinese shop, on the next 
street. 

Upon investigation — that is to say by spying upon 
the shop — the old man found that two of his com- 
patriots who occupied the premises while smoking 
opium, blew the smoke, in the dog's face so that it 
became narcotized and learned the craving. 

In March of this year, a physician in Canada was 
alleged to have sold 120 grains of opium to a horse- 
man on the understanding that the liniment be used 
for a horse. The presiding magistrate fined him, 
holding that only a veterinary could prescribe for 
equines. 

Cassidy, an old Irish friend of mine in the Province 
of Alberta, desired to get some whiskey for his horse 
the other day but found some difficulty in securing it. 

"Sure, an' it's yer leddyship knows," he confided to 
me, "how as this Province is landed high and dry by 
a kind of mis-act about haulm' people to the police 
court if they take as much as a glass o' sperts. Wirra! 
woman, (not wishin' to be disrespectful) may God 
send sinse to the deluderin' creatures that be after 
makin' the laws. 

"It's like this, y'see, I goes over to the druggist, a 
good-for-nothin' jackeen, an' sez I to him, sez I, "My 
9 



256 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



horse does be sick — all av tremblinMike — an' Fm come 
for a nice dhrop of whiskey till give him. Wather's 
kind of cold on a horse's stomach, 

"An' this jackeen, up an' sez, sez he, 'I do be havm' 
some poor stuff not fit for humans to drink, an' you 
can have this for yer old nag if you like/ Faith, 'tis 
the truth I'm telling you : them's the very words that 
come out of the bowld and ugly face of him." 

"And what did you say to him, Cassidy?" asked I. 
"These townsmen don't know much about horses do 
they, Cassidy?" 

"I told him how he Was after speakin* like a furrin 
spy sure enough, an* he said, sez he, as how I'd be 
had up for false pretenses and bad language. An' I 
said, I'll be afther lettin* you know that my horse has 
a dacint taste fer sperts an* needs a lot of sootherin' 
an* care. There'll be no bla' guard blisters fer yon 
horse, sez I, even if the weather is at 40 bezero. 
Troth, an' I'll be givin' that horse none av yer moon- 
shine rubbitch nather. It is best he'll be afther havin' 
even if it's the price av the horse itself 7' 

"But, . Cassidy, did he sell ye the real drop?" I ask, 
"you forgot to tell me that." 

"Sure an' ma'am it's yourself that does always be 
interested-like in horses," replied old Cassidy with a 
gentle but perceptible lowering of the right eyelid, 
"an' may the strength of the saints be on you, now an' 
foriver more, but it's not for the loikes of me to be 
tellin' your leddyship about everything in these blessed 
days of telepattery when folks do be after telegraphing 
each other without money." 



PRESCRIPTIONS 



III. 



257 



A drug devotee who came to Edmonton from a 
village in Alberta was arrested for theft. On her 
person was found a prescription for thirty grains of 
morphine from a local doctor. She also had a box of 
morphine which, of course, was confiscated. Being 
kept in the cells for a couple of days without cigarettes 
or drugs, and strictly incommunicado, she was anxious 
to pour her story into the attentive ear of the police 
in the hope of winning their sympathy sufficiently to 
secure a dose or two of dope-stuff. As a result, three 
reputable physicians were summoned to appear as 
witnesses and several druggists to bring their records. 
It was then found she was in the habit of coming to 
the city every fortnight, after her husband's pay-day, 
to purchase contraband drugs. She had gone to each 
of these physicians and with fox-like craft, had told 
of pains in her legs, and of how she had suffered from 
the disease called "motor-taxi." As a persistent ad- 
dict, she seemed the perfected article. None of the 
physicians knew that she was securing prescriptions 
from others of their profession. Had there been a nar- 
cotic division of the Board of Health, with an ad- 
ministrator, the ruse would not have been successful, 
although it should be noted that in one instance she 
gave an assumed name. , 

The Government clinician who later examined her 
in jail told that she had no disease whatsoever — not 
even locomotor ataxia — and that in any case the use 
of morphine would not have been indicated. Besides, 
the usual prescription for "pains" should have been 



258 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



2 l / 2 grains instead of 30. The prescription of one of 
the physicians had been raised by her from 3 to 30 
grains, and the prescription number placed on a box 
which she kept filled from other sources. 

In the end, the authorities rid themselves of the 
woman by sending her back to the United States, 
which country had previously dispensed with her 
presence gladly. Yes! Uncle Sam and our cousins 
have troubles of their own. 

Last year, in the Province of Saskatchewan, three 
physicians were removed from the Medical Registry 
by the disciplinary committee of the Medical Asso- 
ciation. The accused had counsel when the evidence 
was taken. 

In Calgary, Alberta, a physician was fined $750, 
while another who had been convicted on four counts 
of prescribing cocaine to drug addicts, Was suspended 
from the practice, that in the event of his being con- 
victed of any future offense, his license would be 
revoked. 

In Hamilton, Ontario, it was lately held by Magis- 
trate, Jelfs that physicians who prescribe drugs for 
addicts must administer personally and not leave the 
afflicted person to obtain these from drug stores. 
The accused physician had supplied a woman with 
prescriptions every third day for several months, for 
30 grains of morphine. The Magistrate ruled that the 
woman was not under professional treatment. The 
doctor was fined $200.00 and costs. He appealed his 
case, but with what result we are unable to state. 

But after all, the above cases are trivial in compari- 



PRESCRIPTIONS 



259 



son with the experience of an addict in the United 
States who testified that she had been paying her doctor 
a thousand dollars a month, for thirteen months, "to 
keep her in good health." 

As the "easy" doctor is able to procure a great deal 
of dopestuff illicitly, without keeping any record there- 
of, it is difficult to determine how much one of them 
can handle in a year. 

When he cannot get any more drugs wholesale 
without being checked up by the Federal Government, 
there is nothing to prevent his getting a few ounces 
from some member of the drug ring. 

It is true he gets the cocaine wholesale for $22.00 
an ounce and has to pay the Chinaman $60.00, but the 
spread in prices is amply made up to him, in that an 
ounce of cocaine contains 480 grains, and that each 
grain is sold for $1.00, If mixed with acetanilid, 
which is also a small, white, odorless, glittering crys- 
tal, he can make still greater profits. 

Although he takes the matter with an obvious pas- 
sivity, merely remarking "If the doper doesn't get it 
from me, someone else will supply him," nevertheless, 
such a practitioner kills in order that he may grow 
rich. There are expressions which might cover his 
Infamy but, if set down in print, these would look im- 
moderate or even unholy. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE IMMEDIATE WITHDRAWAL CURE, 
Vice is but a nurse of agonies, — Sir Phillip Sidney. 
TTT RITING in the Boston- American of the slow- 
V V reduction cure as compared with the absolute 
withdrawal of narcotics, Abraham C. Webber has 
drawn attention to the story of the old lady who, to 
be kind to some kittens she desired to dispose of, 
drowned them in warm water instead of cold. This, 
he continues, is the reasoning employed in the so- 
called, slow-reduction cures, the idea being to prolong 
the treatment so long as the drug user is bringing 
money to the "dope" doctor. It goes without saying 
that the user himself is a strong advocate of this 
method. This cure is generally known as "the ambu- 
latory cure" and means that the "patient" may walk 
around as usual attending his business, In the treat- 
ment, he surrenders himself or feigns to surrender 
himself, to the method of tapering off the dosage until 
he is able to entirely abandon the sleep-producing 
substance. 

Having the drug in his possession without dread 
of interference from the police, it is easy for him to 
promise the physician to cut down the amount every 
day. If the physician be sincere and keeps gradually 
reducing the dose, the patient goes to another doctor 
and gets similar treatment. Indeed, as a peripatetic 

260 



THE WITHDRAWAL CURE 261 

patient he may acquire with crafty ingenuity a very 
considerable supply of drugs against the rainy day 
when his tolerance for narcotics has increased still 
further. 

In Report. No. 540 of the United States Public 
Health Service, it is clearly set forth that the physi- 
cian using this method for the purpose of cure, places 
himself in the power of the patient, and that his good 
faith becomes, to a great extent, dependent upon theirs. 

In a word, he must give what the patient wants, 
not what judgment dictates. The Health Service 
speaks with authority on this matter, the method 
having been tried out by the Government of the State 
of New York. During the eleven months their clinic 
was in operation, three thousand persons were induced 
to take slow-reduction method but none of these were 
cured. One of the workers in the clinic who had 
argued strongly for this system, and who at first, had 
been extremely enthusiastic, has been obliged to con- 
fess that "The narcotic clinic stands out as an enor- 
mously expensive and colossal failure." The story of 
what actually happened is so striking a demonstration 
of the inutility of the slow-reduction cure, we venture 
to quote it in part:— "The first day the clinic was 
opened, cocaine was dispensed, but it was stopped on 
the second day. The chief drugs which were sold were 
heroin and morphine, ninety per cent, of the addicts 
being heroin users. All classes attended the clinic — 
the underworld, the criminal, respectable men and 
women including physicians, clergymen, nurses and 
actors. 



262 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



"The addict was started on the maximum dose of 
fifteen grains. Thereafter, the dose was regularly 
reduced in accordance with the decision of the United 
States Supreme Court Demoralization set in, and 
the addicts became discontented. 

"When the addicts reached the irreducible medium, 
they were compelled either to go to the hospital, or 
were refused further doses at the clinic. At this 
period, they lost sight of thousands of addicts. 

"As the dose became smaller, demoralization grew. 
The constant reduction of the dose incensed the addict 
and he resorted to petty larceny- — stole pocketbooks, 
fountain pens, and any small saleable article he could 
lay his hands upon. He also lied and forged in order 
to obtain additional drugs, 

"The majority of the addicts who patronized the 
clinic were of the underworld type and the respectable 
men and women who were compelled to go there 
through poverty were soon demoralized. Their ad- 
dresses were secured and they were followed to their 
homes. 

"Pedlars openly plied their trade in the clinic in 
spite of six supervising policemen. When one pedlar 
more daring than the others was arrested, another 
immediately took his place. 

"In the course of time the addicts were shut out of 
the lavatories and retiring rooms which had been as- 
signed to them to self -administer the drug, as they 
grossly abused these privileges. The addicts then re- 
sorted to an adjacent park where, in the open air, 
and before groups of school children, they applied 



THE WITHDRAWAL CURE 263 

the hypodermic needle and generally conducted them- 
selves in an unseemly manner. The scenes became so 
scandalous that petitions were sent to the Governor 
of the State, and to others, calling for the suppression 
of these demoralizing daily exhibitions by the closing 
of the clinic. 

"Within a period of eleven months, the clinic had 
run its course. It had failed as a clearing-house for 
the hospitals; had become a profitable market for 
pedlars and the so-called reduction method had failed 
to cure any addicts." 

In answer to a questionnaire sent out from Wash- 
ington to the physicians registered under the Harrison 
Narcotic Act, replies were received from 30 2/3 per 
cent The replies showed there were 73,150 addicts 
under this slow-reduction treatment. On the basis of 
100 per cent replies (presuming the same average to 
be maintained) the number of addicts would total 
237,655. 

It is hardly possible, to compute the amount of 
money spent in drugs and in medical fees by these ad- 
dicts in what has proven an entirely useless method, 
most of which money has been extracted from their 
credulous and long-suffering relatives who have thus 
been misled into parting with their dollars. 

If the addict be wealthy, he shows no marked anx- 
iety to be cured, in that he receives his daily supply 
in defiance of laws and regulations. 

Or if these become in any way pressing, the addict 
hies him off to the hospital where the police cannot 
follow, and continues his "treatment" without let or 
impediment. 



264 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



A writer in The ■ Survey claims that an estimate 
based on these reports charges ninety-eight per cent, 
of the total narcotics to be one-third of the practi- 
tioners—the men of inferior talent, and most of them 
over fifty years of age. 

Another authority says, "There is a strong prob- 
ability that the doctor who specializes in an office 
practice for the treatment of drug addiction does riot 
represent the best standards of the profession." 

Feeling that laws are improper intrusions on their 
professional prerogatives, these physicians who are 
"hard to show," raise a lamentable cry about the soul- 
rending agonies which are undergone by "the victims" 
who are suddenly taken off the drug, and of the im- 
minent danger of death to those so deprived. 

Most of us have accepted these statements as ir- 
refutable because we had no reason for thinking other- 
wise, nor any opportunity of proving the contrary. 
Most prison wardens have learned, however, that a 
drug addict, with words of wail and clamor of grief, 
will simulate the most dangerous symptoms if he or 
she can thereby obtain the usual "shot" of morphine. 

If no such hopes are held out, the addict subsides 
much more quickly than one would have expected. 

This method of sudden withdrawal, as opposed to 
the ambulatory or slow-reduction cure, is described 
in the jargon of the jail as "the cold turkey" treatment. 

Speaking of it an official in the jail remarked that 
if ever one broke in a wild western broncho, the ex- 
perience would be helpful here. Perhaps he had in 
mind the reply made by a Texan ranchman when 



THE WITHDRAWAL CURE 265 



Elbert Hubbard asked "When do you break your 
horses?" 

"Pardner," was the reply, "pardner, we have no 
time to break horses in Texas, we just climb on and 
ride them." 

III. 

This routine of immediate withdrawal has been 
tried on 25,000 cases at the large hospitals and peni- 
tentiaries of the United States, for the past several 
years, without any deaths resulting. The same applies 
to the majority of the jails in Canada. 

If, however, the patients were suffering from or- 
ganic diseases of the kidneys, lungs, or heart, a more 
gradual method was adopted, but the withdrawal was 
certain and complete. 

Alfred C. Prentice, A.M., M.D., in the Journal of 
the American Medical Associations, published an 
article showing the effects and treatment of the "cold 
turkey" method. . 

The Department of Health at Ottawa, has been per- 
mitted to reprint this article in pamphlet form and has 
distributed it among the physicians and magistrates of 
Canada. 

Dr. Prentice says in part, "Addicts must be main- 
tained under rigid control, generally in a suitable in- 
stitution, and should be in bed from three days to a 
-veek during the withdrawal of the treatment. 

"Withdrawal symptoms are typical, though not con- 
stantly present to the same degree. Some addicts 
enormously exaggerate their sufferings and complain 
bitterly, striving to excite sympathy by displaying an 



266 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



hysterical emotionalism, anticipating another dose of 
the drug. Others endure their discomfort with 
stoicism with the idea of being through with it quickly. 
They complain of abdominal cramps, nausea, vomit- 
ing, pains in the bones, great restlessness, insomnia 
and fear. All these symptoms can be masked to a 
great extent by the administration of 1/200 grain of 
sco polaminhybr ornate for the first thirty-six hours, 
every six hours. During this period, in fact, up to 
the end of seventy-two hours, the patients are disposed 
to remain in a semi-hypnotic condition, thirst being the 
chief complaint; and plenty of water to drink relieves 
that. 

"To quiet their restless excitement, sulphonal, chlo- 
ral, paraldehyd, etc., may be used if indicated; but the 
hot pack, tub bath, drip sheet, and drip enema of phys- 
iologic sodium chloride, or of sodium bicarbonate solu- 
tion aid materially. 

"In from three to five days their vomiting of bile 
has ceased, their appetite returns, they eat and digest 
substantial food, they gain in strength and weight, 
regularly increasing their weight by from 25 to 50, or 
100 pounds, in two or three months and they are off 
the drug, having had none from the beginning of the 
treatment. 

"In the vast majority of cases, it must be stated by 
way of caution, the habit has been broken off, and the 
craving no longer requires that it be satisfied, but it 
may be reawakened and allowed to dominate the indi- 
vidual again, if he permits any relaxation of his self- 
control. His cure in that sense, then, cannot be said 



THE WITHDRAWAL CURE 267 



to be permanent until he has regained mastery of 
himself." 

Prisoners who have experienced different methods 
of withdrawal invariably prefer "the cold turkey" 
cure, although the prisoners of slippery will and low 
mentality, frankly acknowledge that when the chance 
again presents itself, they will go back to the habit. 
Nearly all of them do, but chiefly for the reason that 
the pedlars tempt them to it as soon as they return to 
their old haunts and old associations. 

In defence of the immediate withdrawal system as 
opposed to the ambulatory or slow -reduction cure, 
Dr. James Hamilton, the Commissioner of Correction, 
New York, has said: "A terrible example of the result 
of ambulatory treatment for drug addiction was seen 
in the City Prison recently. The victim was a young 
man who for seven years had been addicted to mor- 
phine, heroin and cocaine. There was not a square 
inch on his thighs, abdomen and arms that was not 
covered with an abscess, or an ugly looking ulcera- 
tion. He had been receiving forty grains of heroin 
and ten grains of cocaine every day from one of these 
commercial doctors. He was a member of a promi- 
nent family, and his parents were so distracted that 
they were about to give up hope of rescuing him. If 
this victim were to receive ambulatory treatment he 
would never be free from the craving of the drug. 
This case clearly shows the danger of ambulatory 
treatment and the awful menace of the commercial 
doctor," 

The immediate withdrawal cure is one which calls 



268 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



for institutional treatment, so that the patient may be 
under strict control, that drugs may not reach him 
surreptitiously, and that he may have the attendance 
of a physician to guard against a collapse. 

In a letter received recently from a Police Magis- 
trate in one of our Canadian cities, he says: "We 
should have a lock sanatorium where magistrates 
should have power to commit addicts, where they 
would be kept until they received a certificate that they 
were cured of the habit." 

He says further, "There is a great danger in allow- 
ing addicts to roam the country at large in that they 
are continually introducing the habit to some other 
person. For the safety of the public and the addicts 
themselves, a sanitarium of the nature I suggest is. 
desirable." 

The Health Department at Ottawa is heartily in ac- 
cord with the institutional idea. The officer in charge 
of the Narcotic Division has pointed out that, accord- 
ing to statistics, the more addicts you have in a com- 
munity, the more you can expect to have inasmuch as 
addicts make addicts. Persons taking habit-making 
drugs seem to derive pleasure in having their friends 
take these also. 

"For this reason," the officer says, "it is of the ut- 
most importance that provision should be made for 
institutional treatment of the drug addicts in every 
city and town of any size and importance. The ques- 
tion of providing free institutional treatment for these 
drug addicts is, of course, one altogether for the 
municipalities and provinces to deal with." 



THE WITHDRAWAL CURE 269 

Before closing the subject, this might be a good 
place for the laity to ask the medical profession 
whether, in view of the rough but entirely successful 
methods of the jails and public wards, portions of 
their therapeutics on narcotics might not be re-written 
for, assuredly a form of professionalism which is 
detrimental to the public weal should be set aside or- 
substituted by a better one. 

Although it does not say so specifically, perhaps 
something of this kind was contemplated in the report 
of the committee on narcotic drug addiction, which 
was adopted in November, 1921 by the joint meeting 
of the American Public Health Administration, Food 
and Drugs, and Laboratory Associations, at their 
fiftieth annual meeting in New York City :— 

"That the importance of educating the physicians 
as to the dangers of inducing addiction through medi- 
cal practice, and as to the best methods of avoiding 
such dangers, be emphasized. 

"In view, however, of the present unsatisfactory 
state of their medical problem, and of the very diverse 
opinions existing as to its bearing upon legislation 
and police regulations, your Committee believes it to 
be in the public interest that a research Committee of 
clinicians, bio-chemists, and psychiatrists would be 
appointed with official sanction, to investigate all 
phases of the question arid thereafter to make an 
authoritative pronouncement on the medical problems 
involved." 



CHAPTER XVII. 



OPENED SHUTTERS. 



Public instruction should be the first object of government. 

—Napoleon Bonaparte. 

"HEN an addict or "junker" is found in illegal 
possession of drugs and has purchased these 
from an unscrupulous physician, the physician says the 
addict stole the drugs while he was out of the room. 
He thinks the explanation to be a sound one, and per- 
haps it is, for every one who is questioned tells the 
same story. 

Just why a physician should have an ounce of co- 
caine lying around and leave an addict alone with it, 
is hard to make out. Why he does the same thing the 
next day, or the next week is still more wonderful 
and then, mark you, Reader, never discovers his loss 
Until some ungentle kill-joy in "plain-clothes" takes 
an ounce from the patient and finds out where it came 
from. 

Even then, the physician does not lay a charge 
against the marauder, although by so doing he would 
recover his drugs by order of the court. Strange isn't 
it, this quiescence, and disquieting to even the heart 
of a policeman. It is easier for the interlocutor of 
the woman to believe what she asserts— that the drugs 
were purchased with cash of the realm. It is quite 
true that some actual thefts have been made from 

270 



OPENED SHUTTERS 



271 



doctors in down-town blocks, but in these cases the 
thief is rarely discovered, or if discovered the doctor 
does not claim him as a patient, the thief being usually 
a janitor , or some easy-minded person with a master- 
key. As a general thing, physicians and dentists know 
better than to leave narcotics in their offices at night, 
if they need these in the morning. This is what the 
addicts call "gypping" the doctor. '■ > •• 

One physician who was gypped this year in Mon- 
treal complained to the police, but the police, being 
indocile persons and ill-equipped with manners, laid 
a charge against him which resulted in his being 
awarded a year's imprisonment. His complaint had 
been that the patient had paid him $750 for twelve 
ounces of cocaine but had paid him with bad money. 
Now, twelve ounces of cocaine, with the usual adul- 
terants, will make 4,560 "decks," Yes! Yes! that was 
a wise one who said, "When we have sufficiently con- 
sidered humanity it becomes easy to love God. 

Still, the police are not always such big fellows as 
they think themselves, and plenty of people will be 
glad to know it. A month or so ago, in Montreal 
they arrested a suspected person who brazenly ad- 
mitted the ownership of the bottle found in his pos- 
session, and that he had offered it for sale. Ultimately 
the Government analyst declared its contents to be 
common baking powder. Indeed, something humil- 
iating like this happened to myself once. Having 
taken "official notice" that the eighteen bottles ex- 
hibited contained alcohol, the accused was successful 
in proving to me that one of these was gasoline. Not 



272 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



haying raised the point, however, until after the trial, 
she failed to score. 

It is alleged, too, that in some cities, patients re- 
ceiving treatment for venereal disease, take hypoder- 
mic injections from the physician so that they may 
not be hurt by the treatment. These patients do not 
attend the Government Clinics, perhaps because they 
prefer their own physicians, and perhaps because the 
free clinics do not administer "shots" of morphine or 
cocaine. Reputable practitioners are becoming more 
widely awake to the injury done their practice by this 
forbidden trafficking, and are seriously considering 
ways and means whereby it may be stayed. 

In some instances, it has been found that druggists 
arrange with a physician to refer the habitues to his 
office, saying "Doctor Middleman will probably fix 
you up with a prescription." 

The patients go to the physician and get his 
"script/* pay two dollars for it, and take the paper to 
the Cashan Carry Drug Company. 

Out of twenty-nine physicians prosecuted by the 
Board of Pharmacy of the State of California for 
this offence, only two escaped conviction. When the 
Pharmaceutical Boards in Canada begin prosecuting 
the physicians, the public may hope for much. 

n. 

In Canada, a number of convictions are being laid 
under the criminal code for the forging or altering of 
drug prescriptions. That this is a serious problem 
is plain to anyone who has attempted to administer 



OPENED SHUTTERS 



273 



justice iri cases laid under the prohibitory liquor laws. 
It is hardly necessary to say that the prescriptions 
under these statutes have become a by-word and a 
hissing. 

In the United States, according to The Survey, a 
large number of addict prescriptions call for an ounce 
of morphine each, and many thousands call for a 
drachm. 

A Report issued from Washington concerning the 
Harrison Anti -narcotic law, states that the law is 
framed to assist in locating vicious dope sellers, and 
to detect the leak from the legitimate drug trade to 
the illicit dealer. 

The Report says, "That the enforcement of this law 
will not be as simple a matter as one could wish is 
evidenced by the fact that in New York State, the 
official blanks required by the Boylan anti-narcotic law 
have been obtained by persons who are not entitled to 
them, and who are employing them for illicit purposes. 
One individual is said to have secured upwards of 112 
ounces of heroin from wholesale druggists in New 
York City between July 12 and September 17." 

In the States, prescriptions for narcotics are written 
on the official triplicate prescription blanks, or the 
official triplicate dispensing blank. These blanks are 
officially serially numbered, and are procurable from 
the State Department of Health. 

The person giving the order retains one of such 
triplicate orders on his file for a period of two years, 
and sends the other two to the person to whom the 
order is given, who retains one of the duplicates on 



274 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



file for two years, and forthwith mails the other copy 
to the Department. , 

Or an apothecary may dispense upon an unofficial 
prescription blank, signed and containing the office 
address of a physician and the name, age and address 
of the person for whom issued, as well as the date 
thereof. Each such original prescription, serially 
numbered, is kept by him in a separate file for a period 
of two years and cannot be re-filled. 

In the 1921 Session of the House of Commons at 
Ottawa, an acrimonious discussion took place on the 
refilling of narcotic prescriptions. One Honorable 
Member claimed that once a man secured a prescrip- 
tion it became his own property* and he had a right to 
have it re-filled as often as he needed it 

To this, another Honorable Member who was also 
an honorable physician, pointed out that if a prescrip- 
tion providing opium could be re-filled whenever the 
patient chose, it Would be possible to obtain enough 
opium to supply a whole colony of drug addicts. 

In the United States, it is not permissible for drug- 
gists to supply narcotics pursuant to telephone advice 
of practitioners, whether prescriptions covering such 
orders are subsequently received or not. 

That such an arrangement is necessary in Canada 
is shown by an incident which occurred recently. In 
this case, the patient alleged she paid the physician 
ten dollars in his office and that he telephoned the 
druggist the woman would call at the store for a 
stated quantity of a certain drug. The druggist was 
further instructed to charge this to the physician's 
account. 



OPENED SHUTTERS 



275 



It will be seen from this procedure that the only 
record kept was one which pertained to the debt be- 
tween' the physician and druggist, and that there was 
no way of tracing the purchaser. This woman alleges 
she gave the doctor one hundred dollars for drugs 
and hypodermic needles in a fortnight, and that she 
had been directed to the physician's office from a cafe. 

III. 

Under the Opium and Drugs Act of Canada, whole- 
sale and retail druggists are required to keep a record 
of the quantity of drugs received and distributed but 
provision is made for exempting physicians, dentists, 
and veterinary surgeons from the necessity of keeping 
records of the drugs they receive and use in the prac- 
tice of their profession. x 

So long as such exemptions exist, and physicians 
be trusted ad libitum with narcotics, we are only play- 
ing with the traffic, and can never expect to cut out 
this fat-rooted evil. It is not necessary to persuade 
the public of this. " . 

But, as We said elsewhere, even with strict Govern- 
mental control^ there is nothing to prevent, the physi- 
cian securing unlicensed opiates from drug rings, and 
dispensing these. To be concise his diploma gives 
him special immunities and no special disabilities. 

The same applies to the druggist. Many shops are 
"fences" for the storing and dispensing of opium and 
cocaine which have been smuggled into the country; 

In the aggregate, these dope-selling professionals 
largely outnumber the pedlars and are much more 



276 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



difficult to reckon with. In some of the States of 
America — notably in Pennsylvania— it is amazing to 
find that the per capita consumption of narcotics in 
; small towns is much larger than in the big cities. This 
would undoubtedly point to licensed quackery — to a 
trade with the dispensaries rather than with the 
pedlars. 

In several drug stores which were raided by the 
police in the. State of New York, the raiders literally 
waded in the prescriptions of the previous twenty-four 
months. In one instance, it was necessary to secure 
a truck to carry the prescriptions to headquarters. 
How many of these were "shot-gun prescriptions fired 
at a disease in the abstract" it would be hard to say. 

"What is found when a doctor's house and office 
is raided?" you ask. 

In reply we would say, these are seldom raided, but 
in one residence occupied by a degenerate physician 
in the United States, the police found a large number 
of watches, diamonds, chains, bracelets, pearls and 
rings which he had taken from desperate dopers at a 
sacrifice. 

It has been shown that in the Western Provinces of 
Canada, "fiends" foregather in certain drug stores and 
purchase decks of cocaine, morphine and heroin as if 
these were candies, no prescriptions being required. 
One must, however, be known as a "junker" or addict 
%> make the purchase. 

One of these junkers tells me that in selling, the 
druggists usually handles large packages of drugs, and 
the Chinaman small ones. If a Chinaman gets a big 
package, he reduces and adulterates it. 



OPENED SHUTTERS 



277 



Cocaine, as received by the druggist, is usually in 
flake but the druggist may grind it up, and adulterate 
it before selling. In this way— it is clear like the 
light of the sun — -he can sell more than he has to 
account for to the Government. 

Of late, it is observable that drug stores are locating 
next to dance-halls, hotels, or places of public assem- 
blage; with connecting doors or passageways, free 
from the eyes of prying policemen it is tolerably easy 
for alcoholics and dopers to yield to the importunity of 
this temptation. 

IV. 

'' In the United States, in answer to a questionnaire 
sent out from Washington, 52% of the druggists re- 
plied, showing that a total of 9,511,938 prescriptions 
had been filled within one year. On a basis of 100% 
replies (presuming the same average to be maintained) 
the number of prescriptions containing narcotic drugs 
would total 18,299,397. 

In Canada, there are 8,300 registered physicians. 
These are required by law, to report as to the number 
of addicts they are treating. In reply to the Govern- 
ment's questionnaire, 4,019 physicians reported, giving 
a total of 777 addicts. On the 100% basis this would 
give us 1,554 addicts. 

The fallacy of this report is apparent when one city 
of a population, of 130,000, publicly acknowledges 
having 3,000 addicts, apart from the Orientals. 

These physicians reported 38 addicts for the Pro- 
vince of Alberta, whereas there are probably physicians 
who have this number individually. In the City of 



278 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Edmonton, the police find that some of the pharma- 
: cists can only produce records for about one-third of 
the drugs shown by their invoices from the whole- 
salers. The pharmacists claim that the physicians 
purchased the balance by phial, and that the matter 
should have ended there. 

It does end there too, so far as reporting is con- 
cerned, this number of 38. addicts being presumed to 
consume the other two-thirds.. 

In Lethbridge, apart from any phials that may have 
been taken away, the records show that one physician, 
in one drug store, issued in six months 98 prescrip- 
tions, the total being 2,110 grains cocaine, and 3,395 
grains of morphine. Another physician issued to the 
same store, 65 prescriptions, the total amount being 
1,535 grains of cocaine and 1,130 grains of morphine. 
These prescriptions alone, should more than account 
for the 38 addicts reported by all the physicians in 
the province. 

In other words, these reports, so far as containing 
the real facts are only a piece of fine foolery, and need 
not be taken seriously. 

Although forms are sent out and heavy penalties 
provided for under the Opium and Drugs Act for 
those neglecting or refusing to furnish the declaration 
in question, these are not taken seriously because the 
penalties are not imposed, and probably not intended 
to be imposed. The fine is not less than $200, and not 
more than one year's imprisonment, or both. 

In the United States, the fine is $2,000 or imprison- 
ment for five years, or both. 



OPENED SHUTTERS 



279 



Public sentiment, in these two countries should in- 
sist on their prompt and effective application. 

At this point, there breaks into the book voices that 
rage furiously together; "Hoots woman!" they say, 
"How can any Government expect the medical doctors* 
dentists, and veterinarians to incriminate themselves 
upon oath? How could a man who prescribes im- 
properly write anything but fine fables? Host of 
them Would prefer to be safe than exact." 

Not knowing what to reply, we shall pretend we 
do not hear the objection. 

v. . ■ 

One cannot, however, leave this subject without 
drawing attention to the fact that among the apothe- 
caries there is a large and noble army who refuse to 
blot their escutcheons with illicit traffic in habit- 
forming drugs. 

Such a company was recently reported from Van- 
couver, these apothecaries having decided to aid in 
the anti-drug crusade inaugurated in their city and, 
in some instances* were refusing to fill doctor's pre- 
scriptions. May their tribe live and increase!. 

Determined to have no share in the spreading of 
the drug evil, they have decided that in future no 
prescriptions will r be filled by them unless they are 
absolutely convinced that these prescriptions are 
purely for medical purposes, or if the amounts are in 
such quantities as to cause suspicion in the minds of 
the druggists that the supply may be re-sold by the 
party getting it. No prescriptions will be filled to 
addicts. 



280 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



It has been .definitely established that addicts are 
dealing in drugs on the prescriptions they have been 
given for their own use. Their method is the one 
commonly indulged in by bootleggers, and is here set 
down for the enlightenment of the public, and to 
demonstrate the difficulties of police authorities in law 
enforcement. 

The peddling addict gets a prescription calling for 
an amount of morphine, cocaine or heroin to last him 
for quite a long time, but when he takes it to the drug- 
gist, only gets a portion of the drug called for. 

The druggist then gives the pedlar a box or bottle 
bearing the name of the doctor, the prescription num- 
ber, and other particulars. The box may then be 
filled time and time again from illicit supplies, Like 
the widow's cruse of oil, it never becomes quite 
empty. If the police find the pedlar with drugs in > 
his possession, he has only to refer them to the cover- 
ing prescription, in the face of which they are power- 
less to act. 

It is stated by the police in one Canadian city that 
60% of all narcotics are sold by druggists, 30% by 
the underworld, and 10% by doctors. Other places, 
according to their locations have different reckonings,' 
although such computations must be largely problem- 
atic seeing that most of the trading is secret and 
illicit. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



PROHIBITION AND DRUG INTOXICATION. 

What is disliked by the masses needs inquiring into; so 
also does that they have a preference for. — Confucius. 

ARGUMENT based on circumstances leading up 
to a fact are defined as "antecedent probability" 
since the method of its use is to show that the event 
was possible or probable on the ground that there was 
sufficient cause to produce it. This is what is known 
professionally as a priori evidence. 

A demonstration of this took place recently on the 
occasion of a physician being summoned to a police 
station to examine an unconscious prisoner. The 
prisoner, very muddy and dishevelled, lay on the floor 
of .the cell. The doctor bent over and examined him, 
and then, rising, said in a loud stern voice: "This 
man's condition is not due to drink. He has been 
drugged." 

A policeman turned pale and said, in a timid hesi- 
tating voice: "I'm afraid ye 1 re right sir. I drugged 
him all the way — a matter of a block or more." 

There are folk— many of them wholly sincere — 
who tell us that the enormous increase of drug addic- 
tion on this continent is based upon the enactment of 
prohibitory liquor laws— that these laws are kind of 
antecedent probabilities, "To what else could the in- 
crease be attributable?", they ask. "People are bound 

281 



282 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



to turn to the use of narcotics if you deprive them of 
alcoholic beverages. The use of drugs has increased 
wherever prohibition of liquor is enforced." 

"So ho! my fine fellow, if this be "so,"' replies the 
prohibitionist, "then why have Vancouver and Mon- 
treal more drug addiction than other cities in the 
Dominion? Intoxicating liquors are more easily ob- 
tainable in these cities than in any others." 

Being thus hard pressed, these folk have, of late, 
with a most malignant inconsistency, changed their 
attack and argue with equal decisiveness that pro- 
hibition increases drunkenness, and that. drunkenness 
and drug addiction go hand in hand. "If you don't 
believe it" they say, "then look at Montreal and Van- 
couver." Yes! the Arabs were observant when they 
coined the adage that by travelling, the crescent be- 
came a full moon. 

A western Canadian editor said a couple of months 
ago, "Great ; Britain, France, Germany, Mexico and 
many other countries, all Vet' report alarming in- 
creases in the number of drug addicts ... At least 
nine out of ten dope-fiends are also habitual drinkers. 
In nearly every instance, the first use of drugs is made 
while under the influence of liquor . . . almost always, 
liquor is at the bottom of the drug habit." 

This editor goes on to say, "Many will deny this, 
for long ago the liquor traffic put forth a silly and 
absurd piece of propaganda to the effect that when 
prohibition came into effect in a given territory, the 
men who formerly were satisfied by liquor turned to 
drugs and became drug addicts. It isn't true, of 



PROHIBITION AND DRUGS 283 

course, in fact it is the very antithesis of truth. The 
drug and liquor habit go hand in hand, as everyone 
knows who has ever studied in the concrete, and as 
present day conditions prove," 

When we turn to the evidence of those who hold the 
opposite view, we find an equal fervency of opinion. 

Joseph C. Doane, M.D., the Chief Resident Physi- 
cian of the Philadelphia General Hospital, states that 
from the testimony of their drug patients there 
is no connection whatever between drug-disease and 
the inability to get liquor. 

The New York City Health Department in the year 
1919-1920, asked 1,403 drug patients the cause of their 
addiction. Only 1 per cent, came to it from alcoholic 
indulgence. The Secretary of the Rhode Island State 
Board of Health, says "We fail to find a man among 
the applicants for treatment any one formerly addicted 
to the free use of alcoholic beverages." 

The Health Officer of Richmond, Virginia, declares 
that drunkenness and drug addiction are not common 
in the same person. 

The City Health Officer of Jacksonville, Florida, 
reports that from the histories of addicts registered, 
it appears that there is no relation between the habitual 
user of alcoholic liquor and the drug addict. 

Cora Frances Stoddard, in her "Preliminary, Study" 
on the relation between prohibition and drug addiction, 
points out that drug addicts are comparatively youth- 
ful thus indicating that the habit is not usually built 
on antecedent alcoholism. She says, "Of 1,169 new 
patients treated at the New York Narcotic Relief 



284 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Station in one week (April 10-16, 1919) most of, them 
were mere youths. A large majority of the patients 
at the New York Health Department Clinic are under 
twenty-five, and nearly one-third of them are not out 
of their teens. One boy began at the age of thirteen." 
In this connection, Cora Stoddard quotes the Health 
Department Bulletin as attributing the addiction of 
these youths, not to alcohol, but from a morbid desire 
to imitate what they think is a practice of the "under- 
world," "gunmen" and "gangsters." 

Miss Stoddard, in the summary of her study has 
said— and in this we agree with her — that "bad asso- 
ciation and the urge of an illicit traffic seeking to 
profit bv the sale of the habit-forming drugs are the 
most potent causes for the growth of evil," 

She says further, and with absolute correctness — 
a statement borne out by statistics— that "the drug 
evil spread secretly for years, little noticed, finally 
manifesting itself with virulence in 'wet' states as well 
as in *dry J states. Apparently the exposure of con- 
ditions was coincident with the spread of prohibition, 
not the result of prohibition." 

In the event of some hard-baked, prejudiced person 
urging— albeit improperly — that conditions in the 
United States are no criterion to those existing in 
Canada, give us leave to here quote the report of the 
Medical Committee of the Kiwanis Club, Van- 
couver: — "Practically all observers state that there 
seems to be no special connection between the use of 
alcohol and the use of drugs. There is no evidence to 
show that the suppression of the use of alcohol in- 



PROHIBITION AND DRUGS 285 



creases to any appreciable extent the addiction to 
drugs, as drug addicts are rarely alcoholics/ The 
growth of drug addiction in various cities and coun- 
tries has gone on quite irrespective of the varied exist- 
ing liquor laws." 

Not long ago a young girl who was arrested told 
me she would have escaped the police had she not been 
foolish enough to drink liquor while under the in- 
fluence of narcotics. "When you ate taking 'coke,' " 
she said, "whiskey affects your heart and makes you 
'goofeyV' 

A. C. Webber has made the following interesting 
comparison between the users of narcotics and alco- 
hol :— . "Strange to say, dope and alcohol class alike 
in many respects. Both are drugs and both are habit 
forming. They may be termed poisons, and both have 
narcotic properties. The same may also be said about 
nicotine, the active principle of tobacco. The effect, 
however, of these substances is wholly opposite. 

"Dope attracts the weak minded — the fellow who 
gives up the fight and throws up his hands — the down- 
and-out who succumb to their troubles, who will not 
make an effort to battle against the current of life. 

"The users of alcohol represent the stronger side 
of human nature. Do they give up ? Not very much. 
Just listen to talk around the street about submission 
to Government control of alcohol. The user of alco- 
hol (I am not talking about the sot or inebriate) is no 
weakling, either in talk or action . . . Alcohol may 
momentarily kindle the spark of genius. Dope never. 



286 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



. . . It produces thoughts of crime, meanness, base- 
ness, selfishness and degeneracy.' ' 

In most places, those deprived of liquor seek Sub- 
stitutes, not in opium, cocaine or other allied drugs, 
but in raisin jack, home made wines; Jamaica ginger, 
paregoric, essences or moonshine. 

Since prohibition came into effect, the drug addicts 
became more noticeable, and people have learned to 
distinguish between drug and alcoholic intoxication 
as never before. 

It is strange, however, that temperance associations 
and social service councils are concerning themselves 
almost exclusively with the prohibition of alcoholic 
liquors when drug intoxication has become a national 
calamity — one that far outdistances that of intem- 
perance. This is probably because of the difficulty 
of getting into touch with the drug traffic, it being 
carried on by stealth, by persons we seldom meet and 
whose language is unknown to us. It is deeply signi- 
ficant^ however, that the blank forms which the 
Dominion Government sent out this year to Juvenile 
Court officers, requires a statement as to whether or 
not the child before the court is addicted to drugs. 

If the philanthropic organizations, churches, and 
temperance associations are unacquainted with the ex- 
tent of the evil, it is quite certain that Government 
officials are laboring under no delusions whatsoever. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



OPIUM. 

The phaiitasmagorical world of novels and of opium. 

— Dr, Thomas Arnold. 

OPIUM is the substitute for alcohol in the Orient. 
On this continent it bids fair to oust alcohol, 
and is gaining ground year by year. By going back a 
ijew years, it can be easily seen that this growth was 
a steady one long before prohibitory liquor laws came 
into force, and that we must look to causes other 
than temperance legislation for its persistent increase. 

Figures concerning the gradually increasing use of 
narcotics in Canada have already been given in this 
volume. For those relating to the United States, we 
shall turn our attention to a report made by the special 
committee appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury 
Department in the year 1919. 

This report shows that for the last sixty-five years 
the use of opium and its alkaloids has constantly in- 
creased. In the year 1900, the population of the 
United States was two-and-a-half times greater than 
in 1860, but the amount of opium entered for con- 
sumption was five times as great. 

During the past twenty-two years one might reason- 
ably have expected the use of opium and its alkaloids 
to have decreased owing to the use of large amounts 
of synthetic somnifacients, such as chloral hydrate, 

287 

10 



288 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



sulphonal, trional, veronal, etc., but as a matter of fact 
such is not the case. The growth for legitimate medi- 
cal purposes grows enormously. How its progress 
will be stayed, or who will do it are the momentous 
questions that confront us. 

II. 

In a volume by Watt entitled the "Common Pro- 
ducts of India" writing of the poppy, he says that the 
Greeks made an extract from its capsules, stems and 
leaves which they called meconium. This extract was 
used as an opiate, and for the manufacture of a drink 
which exactly corresponds to the post of the Pan jab 
to-day. Later, the Greeks discovered the more power- 
ful qualities of the inspissated sap, the product of 
which was their famous opion. 

The method of obtaining the extract from the pop- 
pies was described by Theophrastus in the third cen- 
tury before Christ "Some use it," he says, "in a 
posset of mead for epileptics." He also said the juice 
of the poppy was collected from its head and that it 
was the only plant so treated. Virgil, in the Georgics, 
refers to their narcotic principles in the line, "Poppies 
steeped in Lethe's sleep." 

Pliny pays special attention to opion and its medi- 
cinal qualities, while the minute details of its manu- 
facture are narrated by Dioscorides. 

The next reference we have to the drug is in the 
thirteenth century, when Simon Januensis, the physi- 
cian to Pope Nicholas IV, wrote of opium thebaicum. 

It is true that in Arabia, certain authors of medical 



OPIUM 



289 



works wrote of opium but these do not seem to have 
experimented in its use to any marked extent, their 
account of it being derived largely from Galen and 
Dioscorides. 

In referring to its history, it is interesting to note 
that the Sanscrit name of opium is ahiphena which, 
being interpreted, means "snake venom." 

The Hindus (especially the Sikhs), are addicted to 
opium but it is more particularly used by the people 
of Assam to relieve bowel disorder which is a scourge 
in their locality. 

In China, the users of opium believe it to have 
aphrodisical qualities, whereas it actually lessens the 
reproductive powers, the average number of children 
of opium eaters being Lll after eleven years of 
married life. 

In England, and America the noctiluce or night- 
walkers, given to a licentious course of life, hold to the 
same theory concerning cocaine which they frankly 
designate as "love powder," the pedlars having told 
them this to increase its use. The idea is, however, an 
old one for a female character in a Shakespearian 
play refers to "medicines to make me love him." 

Dr. James A Hamilton of New York who has 
dealt with thousands of opium addicts states that 
while the principal effect of opium is on the nerves, 
yet the secretions of the body are diminished with 
the exception of sweat. "The patient," he says, "pre- 
sents a picture of a poorly developed, poorly nourished 
individual, with a cold, clammy skin, who is apathetic, 
does not care to move about, and is particularly loath 



290 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



OPIUM 



291 



to bathe. If he is careful in the amount of drug taken, 
he is able to attend his daily task, does not suffer, but 
is continually losing ground. His power of resistance 
is lowered and he becomes an easy prey to current 
affections, tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, or any 
of the maladies we have to combat in everyday life. 
If opium is suddenly withdrawn, there is a set of 
symptoms which are fairly constant and have been 
termed withdrawal signs. This condition is generally 
ushered in by yawning, sneezing, tremors, vomiting 
and sometimes symptoms of collapse." 

As a rule opium and morphine addicts are very 
secretive and consequently are prone to seek for a cure 
that will not expose their habit. Because of this they 
fall easy victims to quackery and to charlatans gener- 
ally. If the police are so-minded and desire to find 
out who are opium addicts, they have only to advertise 
a sure cure for the habit with the promise of secrecy. 
The mind of the addict somersaults to such an adr 
vertisement. 

In answer to a questionnaire sent out in the United 
States to the leading private hospitals and sanitoria, 
it was reported that the average length of time re- 
quired for the cure of opium addicts was seven weeks, 
and for cocaine addicts, six weeks. 

Dr. Stuart MacVean, the resident physician at 
Riker's Island, New York State, who has treated over 
a thousand opium addicts states that after a hundred 
days, his patients have been entirely relieved of the 
physical craving. "The question then," he says, "be- 
comes a sociological one. There is nothing in any 



cure that will not produce a later antagonism to the 
taking of opium." 

If we could keep drugs away from him at this 
period of his redemption, the opium, or the morphine 
addict would probably stay ' cured but under present 
conditions this is not possible. It was Confucius who 
said "The people may be put in the way they should 
go, though they may not be put in the way of under- 
standing it." 

This is particularly true of the addict who is 
feeble-minded or who has pronounced criminal ten- 
dencies. Such a person is hardly out of the institution 
till he has forgotten all about the tortures of opium 
abandonment and remembers only its balm and mellow 
magic. 

Coming into the streets again, he is usually in that 
condition where he is a kind of first-cousin to all the 
world. He does not go far until he falls into the 
clutches of the harpies who formerly supplied him with 
the drug and who, again, seek his custom. 

In March of this year, a young white man released 
from Okalla Jail in British Columbia, was given 
his first "shot" by an emissary of the "dope-ring" 
within five minutes of his release, in a bush within 
sight of the jail. 

This white man, in spite of his jail experiences, im- 
mediately began peddling drugs, himself, and was later 
arrested by a police operative to whom he sold two 
packages or "bindles." On being arrested, in rooms 
which the police allege were being used as his dis- 
tributing headquarters, the marked money was found 



292 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



OPIUM 



293 



upon his person. The man pleaded guilty to the charge 
of selling inhibited drugs without a license and was 
sentenced to five years in prison under the indictable 
section of the Opium and Drugs Act. 

In my own continuing city, . a man who was re- 
leased from the hospital in the morning, after several 
weeks of treatment for drug addiction, was given a 
hypodermic injection of morphine the same evening 
by his wife, who was still "on the drug," thus re-enact- 
ing the original drama of Adam and Eve. 

While these instances of weakened volition suc- 
cumbing to temptation may be exceptionally aggra- 
vated ones, the fact remains that only in exceptional 
cases does the cure hold. Not without reason has it 
been said "The physician who undertakes this wOrk 
will find his path a rugged one without roses bordering 
it . . . He must realize that his experiences will be 
more or less of a martyrdom order, severe trials of 
his patience, and vexations requiring a strength of 
will-power and careful judgment beyond the or- 
dinary." 

Yes ! Yes ! the physicians must show themselves to 
be the gentle, wise ones of the earth, and, speaking 
generally they are. 

III. 

It has been remarked somewhere in this volume 
that it was quite possible for a detective to find smug- 
gled opium and fail to recognize it as such. This 
thought recurs to me as I turn over a large lump of 
raw opium that looks like a mass of vegetation, which 
has been boiled and pressed into a mould the shape of 



a porridge bowl. On the outside, one can see plainly 
the tracery of the leaves as though it had been wrapped 
in them. 

The- chemist tells me this is raw or crude opium of 
the highest quality and that it comes from India. 
Many people use it there, it being said of one province 
"Out of ten Shen-si people, eleven smokers." 

This raw opium has the smell of crushed vegetation, 
and not the slightest resemblance in odor to prepared 
opium. 

He further tells me that he intends testing it and 
that, if so disposed, I may cook it in collaboration. 
Being curious and somewhat unsophisticated I accept 
the offer only to find that, like sod-breaking, the task 
is in nowise a light-hearted one. 

First, we chopped the opium in bowls, till almost 
it was a powder. To keep me to my task, the chemist 
tells me about the poppy family, and stories of their 
fatal beauty. Poppies, he says, have a very harmful 
effect upon flowers placed in the same vase, so that 
they fade quickly and die away. This, he takes it, is 
an exemplification of Ovid's declaration that "medi- 
cine sometimes snatches away health." 

Once, he used morphine himself but gave it up be- 
fore the habit could gain ascendancy. Under its in- 
fluence he felt himself freed from the restraint of 
gravitation, and would cry out when his head seemed 
as though it would strike the ceiling. 
_ On either side of his study door, there were bronze 
lights which used to become ourang-outangs with eyes 
of fire. He decided to forego the drug when he found 



294 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



that to waken himself to normality, it was requisite 
that he take a "jolt" of cocaine. 

. . . The opium in my bowl being dessicated, the 
chemist mixes it with warm water and agitates it 
into a thick pasty mass that looks for all the world 
like jalap and water. 

This mass contains impurities which must be 
strained out to make it suitable for smoking, other- 
Wise the opium would have a rank flavor, similar to 
that a man would get who tried to smoke with a rag 
in his tobacco pipe. 

Oyer and over we re-heated the solution straining 
it through cloths, and gradually adding a little more 
water, for it is easier to wash the impurities from 
the thin solution. 

The surprising part of this fluid is its remarkable 
stickiness. If you close your solution-soiled hand for 
a few minutes, it is difficult to open it. 

When all extraneous matter is removed, we place 
the solution in a brass vessel, after which it is slowly 
boiled, the water passing off in steam. 

The residue is called pen yang and is a thick treacle. 
It is now ready for smoking. 

The mixture is cooked in brass because it does not 
stain this metal. The odor of the opium during this 
process of cooking is a most noisome and insinuating 
one, also it stupefies the amateur cook and gives her 
a headache that really aches. 



OPIUM 



IV. 



295 



In Canada, the legitimate imports of opium for the 
six months ending September, 1919 totalled 11,125 
pounds. For the corresponding period in 1920, the 
imports dropped to 1,840 pounds. This reflects great 
credit on our Government, and if it could deal as effec- 
tively with the illicit traffic, the end would be in sight 

In a report of the Federal Grand Jury at Spokane 
in February of this year, a copy of which was con- 
veyed to Governor Hart from the United States 
Attorney at Spokane, it was stated that the importa- 
tions of crude opium had increased from 60,000 
pounds in 1917 to 730,000 pounds in 1919— an in- 
crease of 1,100 per cent. — and that there was manu- 
factured in the United States sufficient narcotics to 
supply every man, woman and child in the Republic 
with five one-grain portions a day, and that a large 
amount of drugs not accounted for were being smug- 
gled into the country. 

The recommendations of the grand jury included 
the following things: (1) that the city authorities 
be urged to organize and maintain anti-narcotic squads 
of sufficient number to cope with the local situation; 
(2) that the Federal Government be urged to increase 
its corps of special agents; (3) that judges be urged 
to impose on all violators, the maximum sentences 
upon conviction of the sale of narcotics or possession 
with intent to sell; (4) that all agencies and organiza- 
tions working for the eradication of the narcotic evil 
use every effort towards arousing the public senti- 
ment to back their efforts. 



296 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



In Canada, the city of Vancouver which has been 
horrified and appalled by the revelations of the traffic 
on the Pacific Coast, they are endeavoring to line-up 
public opinion as above suggested. We are deeply 
indebted to sure-seated Vancouver for her efforts to 
keep straitly the portals to this Dominion, and no 
second call should be needed by Canadian people. An 
editor by the sea has described the opium traffic as 
the greatest menace to its youth which has ever con- 
fronted this nation, "a pestilence that not only walks 
in darkness but destroys in the noonday." 

"The opium traffic," adds Duncan M. Smith, "is a 
disgrace and menace to civilization. The coils which 
this monster has wound around civilization should be 
torn away with no gentle hand. The war against this 
degrading drug should never be called off until the last 
outpost has been surrendered." 



CHAPTER XX. 



CRIME AND NARCOTICS. 

And some grow mad, and all grow bad, 
And none a word may say. 

— Oscar Wilde. 

O PEAKING of the ever-growing company of 
|J criminals, John Daley has shown that the records 
of the City of New York show 85% of the prisoners 
who are arrested for the violation of the narcotic laws 
have criminal records. 

In the State of Massachusetts, eminent authorities 
claim that 85% become vicious, while Calif ornians 
place the number at 95%. 

The Medical sub-committee of the Kiwanis Club, 
Vancouver, stated in a recent report that there were 
two classes of criminal addicts — criminals before ad- 
diction and criminals after addiction. "We have 
no reliable statistics," they said, "to state what 
percentage is in each class, but it would appear 
that a fair proportion was in the incorrigible or 
criminal class before using drugs, and that drug ad- 
diction was only One indication of dissipated or crimi- 
nal habits. It is stated that a large number of crimi- 
nals are drug addicts, and that a vast majority of the 
females who come before the police authorities are 
prostitutes most of whom are diseased. 

"However, it is undoubtedly a fact that large num- 
bers have begun their downfall and their real criminal 

297 



298 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



histories after learning drug habits, and that the desire 
to procure drugs has been the cause of their criminal 
acts/* 

In reply to questionnaires sent out* by a Special Com- 
mittee appointed by the Treasury Department at 
Washington, replies were received from 338 Chiefs- 
of-Police. These reported that among the prisoners 
arrested in 1918, the number of drug addicts totalled 
5,443. 

Most interesting information on the bearing of the 
different drugs in relation to crime was discovered in ; 
their replies. The most violent of the crimes were 
perpetrated by the users of heroin and cocaine. These 
were also the drugs most favored by panderers en- 
gaged in the white-slave traffic, and by prostitutes. 

Opium and morphine users seldom commit the more 
brutal crimes. The offences committed by these, in 
order of their frequency are: — larceny, burglary, vag- 
rancy, forgery, assault, and violation of the drug laws. 

Speaking of the effect of addiction on morals, a 
certain report has declared, however, that "the opium 
or morphine addict is not always a hopeless liar, a 
moral wreck, or a creature sunk in vice and lost to all 
sense of decency, but may often be an upright indivi- 
dual except under circumstances which involve his 
effection, or the procuring of the drug of addiction. 
He will usually lie as to the dose necessary to sustain 
a moderately comfortable existence, and he will stoop 
to any subterfuge, and even to theft to achieve relief 
from bodily agonies experienced as a result of the 
withdrawal of the drug." 



CRIME AND NARCOTICS 299 

A prominent Government official in a letter from 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, said recently, "Many crimes are 
to our knowledge committed by persons while under 
the influence of drugs, and we have good grounds for 
believing that the recent murder in the town of St. 
Boniface, whereby two Provincial police officers came 
to their death, was caused by a cocaine fiend." 

As it is claimed that drug addiction has increased 
two hundred per cent, in the last two years in Van- 
couver, the following letter from that city may prove 
of interest : — "No doubt every effort is being put forth 
to stamp out this awful traffic in drugs, but, as you 
are aware, Vancouver is a very hard place to police 
both so far as drugs are concerned and other work. 
We have lots of serious crime here. It might interest 
you to know that since the 1st of January last (ten 
months) there have been 105 holdups in the city by 
armed men, and 217 burglaries. At present, there is 
a holdup every night. These men are becoming very 
impudent and audacious. Out of every 50 holdups 
not more than one man is caught. 

"In Vancouver, experience has shown that a large 
majority of the bandits are drug addicts. Take the 
case of Tom G — — , who is well known to you : he was 
sentenced here a week ago to seven years and thirty 
lashes. He held up a Hindoo, and got $28.00 from 
him at the point of a revolver. He told me that he 
did it to get money for drugs. He said he did not 
mind the seven years, but he dreaded the lash. He 
also told me he had received the lash before, but not 
here. A sentence such as this should prove a deterrent 



300 



THE BLACK CANDL£ 



to others, but no, they are still going on . . . Anyone 
here who 'is in the know' would just confirm what 
I have above stated." 

II. 
After passing from the stage of an habituate into 
that of an addict, the man or woman quickly becomes 
unemployable. 

But even if these had employment and were capable 
of work, their drugs cost so much they must, perforce, 
lie off and steal the money. 

It has been reckoned that an addict requires from 
three to thirty dollars a day for drugs, the smaller 
amount being imperative. 

If a raid takes place and any considerable amounts 
be seized the prices become almost prohibitive. 

Limpy Lill, a young half-breed woman tells me that 
she and her pal, Mildred, sniff between them from 
thirty to forty "decks" a day. She robs persons at 
night— or in her own words "frisks them"—and has 
no ridiculous delicacy in telling of it. As a criminal, 
Limpy Lill is capable of all that her looks imply. 

Often, these girls divide the stolen money with their 
"steadies" who are without funds— that is to say those 
black-hearted, iron-heeled fellows who live basely 
upon these earnings. Surely, that is a notable proverb 
which says, "From prey to prey we come to the 
devil." 

Limpy Lill would have me understand that Mildred 
is a person of no common clay in that she can absorb 
much whiskey even while "lit up" with cocaine. Mil- 
dred has used so much cocaine that she is getting "the 



CRIME AND NARCOTICS 301 



saddle nose"— a nose that has width at the bridge as 
though it were broken, and which is not uncommon 
with "coke" fans, 

III. 

Limpy Lill keeps to "coke" herself, because it is 
"love medicine," at least she has been told it is, and 
further she tells me in expressions both immoderate 
and unholy, how she hopes all the police officers may 
die soon, and that they may not go to heaven. Indeed, 
she knows some insulting songs about them, but she 
would rather not tell me the words. 

Another person suffering from the disease of drug 
addiction, states he can use over fifty of the decks 
sold at $1.00 each. 

In Manitoba, it is reported that three or four per- 
sons with the drug bias frequently club together and 
order from four to six ounces of cocaine through 
some Toronto or Montreal firm. This cocaine is for- 
warded to them either through the express office or 
post office. Sufficient of the cocaine is mixed with 
carbonated magnesium, or some other adulteration so 
that they get their own drugs for little or nothing. 
The so-called "honor among thieves" is open to ques- 
tion but, among dope crooks, such a matter as honor 
is unknown. It really doesn't matter much but one 
may just say in passing that the most distinctive thing 
about the underworld is the treachery of its denizens. 

IV. 

A little while ago, we said that when a large raid 
took place, drugs became so scarce that prices were 
almost prohibitive. A news correspondent writing 



BLACK CANDLE 



from Seattle, has this to say about the subject \—^/ 
"The poorer addict has but one course left /to 
pursue. He or she must get the price by stealing 
it and so terrible is the craving that even the fear 
of a long penitentiary sentence has no terrors. 
The mind is consumed with but one thought and 
the body with but one desire, and that is for the 
deadly drug that for a few hours will give re- 
spite, lift the aching soul from the flames of hell, 
cool the inflamed mind and restore temporary 
exhilaration to the body." 

This statement was strikingly illustrated in Seattle 
itself in the raids that took place on the 14th and 15th 
of December, 1921, when large quantities of- both 
morphine and cocaine were seized by the detectives. 

On the three days immediately succeeding this "big 
pinch," a wave of crime swept over the city in which 
period there were no less than sixty-four burglaries 
and forty-seven hold-ups. The officials in Seattle state 
that the penalties for these offences are so severe, and 
the risks so great, that only those whose minds were 
unbalanced by their suffering would dare to take the 
chance. 

In order to buy narcotics, the youth in the home 
will steal his mother's jewelry, his father's books or 
clothing, or the family silverware. The young girl 
goes to work as a housemaid for a day or two that 
she may rob her employer. As she descends lower 
in the social scale she doesn't work for anyone but 
the negro who buys her for the price of opium where- 
with to "hit the pipe." She wasn't bad to start with— 



CRIM E AND NARCOTICS 303 



this white addict^but just languishing for entertain- 
ment, and perhaps a grafter who was looking for 
free treats in the way of theatre tickets, joy-rides, 
candies or suppers. ;\ 

There are girls in the world— thousands and thou- 
sands of them— who like Tamakea of Tahiti, may be 
described as "comely of countenance, nimble of body, 
empty of mind." 

Because they have earned a pay check or two, they 
feel the world to be under their feet. Such girls have 
no fancy for restraint of any kind, being especially 
loath to that of the parental variety, They refuse to 
be either advised or admonished. For minnows like 
these, there are always sharks in the offing. One such 
shark in my own city claims that he has ruined thirty 
of these foolish little girls. Each girl went out with 
white men but, in the morning, when she awoke he 
was there beside her— this black man. 

There is a psychology about the thing which needs 
explaining. One of the girls told me about it her- 
self. The girls will not, complain to their relatives, or 
to the police, because they have a horror of exposure 
in a racial matter of this kind. They feel there is 
nothing for them; but to hide their shame for the time 
being anyway. She told me, too, of the unmention- 
able drugs that were used, and how they can be pur- 
chased like candies in certain stores, their use being 
for one specific object. Against their power no girl 
has any chance. 

In all parts of Canada and the United States, girls 
like these ultimately gravitate to Greek or Assyrian 



304 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



candy shops, Chinese cafes, cabaret-bars, negro opium 
joints, or to disorderly houses. 

The number? Oh yes, we said it awhile ago — 
hundreds and hundreds of thousands. 

One might suppose the average mother would be ex- 
cited or alarmed concerning these things, and because 
her daughter was becoming a degenerate and a drug- 
fiend but, strange and inexplicable as it may appear, 
such is not generally the case. Many mothers have so 
large and generous a tolerance towards the derelictions 
of their children that the woman magistrate is forced 
to wonder if she is expecting too much of humanity, 
or whether it is the proper thing that handsome 
feathers should be trailed in the dust. 

A woman police constable in Alberta took a girl 
seventeen from a chop-suey house to her home in the 
early morning. The girl's mother called over the 
balustrade that she would not be disturbed at so un- 
earthly an hour; that the girl could go straight to bed 
and the officer — well, straight to the barracks. 

This officer who is quite a sensible person says she 
didn't go — not for quite awhile anyway — that the 
mother did come down, and that what she heard was 
in nowise consonant with the spirit of delicate dissem- 
bling. Yes! that was it, the officer gave the mother 
"a piece of her mind," and it was not a mind of peace. 

The general belief is that all mothers are wise and 
good, whereas this is far from being the case. In- 
stances are not uncommon of mothers and daughters 
"working" the hotels or streets together, and of 
mothers being actual parties to the defilement of their 



CRIME AND NARCOTICS 305 

children, but these obscenities cannot be allowed the 
perpetuity of print. The allusion is made here to show 
that all the blame must riot be placed upon dissolute 
male persons, but upon white mothers with black 
hearts or, maybe, mothers whose hearts are only thin 
and light. 

In the United States and Canada, the home is not 
the impregnable stronghold that we mentally visualize 
from literature, or which has been handed down in the 
lore of the Saxons. 

We might enumerate the causes and say that the 
home is dull, or that the routine of the home is one of 
drudgery. We might argue from the other side that 
the children rule the home, or that too many liberties 
are allowed them. All our arguments might be true, 
but, looking at the matter more clearly, it is readily ap- 
parent that the trouble is due to the fact that religious 
precepts are unknown and unpractised in the majority 
of our homes. The Bible is unread, while purity and 
honor are topics of jest. The only deities are money, 
dress, business, politics, social distinction, delicate 
foods and strong drinks. 

Do you say we exaggerate? Do you waggle your 
heads and say the picture is too pessimistic ? 

Then we care not a penny piece for your opinion. 
These facts are wholly true for we know whereof we 
speak. 

V. 

. . . And when the young girl has been victimized, 
it is only a little while until she begins to prey upon 
others. She must be rescued early if rescued at all. 



306 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



CRIME AND NARCOTICS 307 



1 T 



The potential criminal should be healed before she 
becomes a criminal. Once she has crossed from girl^ 
hood to womanhood or to motherhood, her case be- 
comes difficult in the extreme. If not rescued, she 
becomes a propagandist in the spread of narcotics, 
and a recruiter for vice. Usually, her first recruits 
are from the girls she knew at school or in the factory 
and store. 

Recently, seven young girls under eighteen years of 
age were brought into court either as "neglected chil- 
dren" or as witnesses in the enquiry. They had all 
gone to school together. Two confessed to spending 
nights in Chinese noodle parlors, and three to using 
drugs. The others, while they "knew things," 
wouldn't tell. f < •, • ,1 

Later, the girl victims who are prostitutes become 
alcoholic* or drug addicts, sufferers from venereal 
disease, thieves, Vagrants, forgers and blackmailers. 

As one looks upon these wrecks of humanity, one is 
appalled by the sight and fearful for the future of the 
race. 

There is no question about it, prostitution must be 
ended, if we are to end the drug traffic for almost 
every prostitute uses narcotics, and the majority are 
distributors. 

With the taxi-drivers, the prostitutes are the chief 
pedlars among the white populace. 

By their unmentionably corrupt practices — things 
of which the average decent woman is profoundly 
ignorant— these prostitutes are corrupting the man- 
hood of the country. It is at the house of the wanton 



whose feet "take hold on heir' that the already debased 
frequenters learn the additional vice of drug intoxi- 
cation. It was Thomas Fuller, a brave old writer, who 
said, "Heat of passion makes our souls to chap and 
the devil creeps in at the crannies." 

Except in the larger cities and towns, these prosti- 
tutes are unmolested although there is a popular dic- 
tum that prostitution has always been in the world 
and must always exist. This dictum is so plainly false 
that it can hardly be deceptive. The establishment 
of the equal moral standard ; the realization that we are 
suffering to the death from the terrible ravages of 
narcotics, and that we are threatened with universal 
infection from the social disease, must inevitably 
arouse the people to taking sure and perfect action in 
the way of personal and national preservation. In 
the Provincial jail of Alberta one person in every 
three must be treated for venereal disease by the 
Government clinician but, generally speaking, the pub- 
lic is unacquainted with these facts. 

Until we loose the strangle hold of the prostitute 
on our populace, we can never hope to make any 
marked progress in staying these abominable evils, 
including that of the drug traffic. 



CHAPTER XXL 

DRUG BONDAGE. 

To the little red house by the river 

I came when the short night fell, 
I broke the web forever 

I broke my heart as well 
Michael and the saints deliver 

My soul from the nethermost hell, 

— M. E. Coleridge. 

THERE are two classes of addicts — the legiti- 
mate and the illegitimate. 
A medical committee which was appointed by the 
American Health Association to make a study of the 
subject divided the addicts into three groups and 
specified the responsibility for these so far as their 
care was concerned. This report is, therefore, of 
unique value. Briefly, the division is as follows: — 

I. Group of addicts variously spoken of as crimi- 
nals, degenerates, and feebleminded who are unwilling 
and unable to co-operate in the necessary treatment 
and should be kept under official control. This group 
is essentially a police problem. 

II. The group who suffer from physical conditions 
necessitating an indefinite continuance of their use. 
This constitutes a medical problem. 

III. The group whom the clinical condition which 
was the cause of their beginning addiction no longer 
exists. This is also a medical problem. 

The general concensus of opinion seems to be that 

308 



DRUG BONDAGE 



309 



there is not any very marked connection between cer- 
tain occupations and addiction. 

In the United States, a questionnaire on this matter 
was sent to 4,568 superintendents of hospitals and 
sanitoria. Replies were received from 36%, but only 
227 of these contained information of value. Most 
of the superintendents replied that no records had 
been kept. The occupation in their order of frequency 
were reported as follows: — housewives, laborers, 
physicians, salesmen, actors and actresses, unemployed, 
business men, nurses, fanners, office workers, pro- 
fessional men and women, prostitutes, pharmacists, 
"dope pedlars," mechanics, merchants, gamblers, news- 
papermen and printers. 

The causes of addiction have been spoken of else- 
where, but it would be in order here to quote those 
given by Mr. Justice Cornelius F. Collins of the Court 
of Special Sessions of New York, while testifying 
before a legislative commission. He attributed drug 
addiction to protracted medication for bodily ailments 
and disease, to seeking relief from the effect of alco- 
holic intoxication, to the persistent consumption of 
patent medicines containing narcotics, to the circula- 
tion in jails of narcotics, to gang influence, foolish 
curiosity and bad association. 

While one-third of all addicts are in their 'teens, 
the average age is twenty-four years. The figures 
relating to insanity and the use of narcotics are 
meagre, although to anyone who has protracted deal- 
ings with the victims, the habit itself seems a frenzy of 
form of insanity. To a drug- wrecked man the Hindu 



310 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



dictum seems always applicable : "The deer of reason 
has fled from the hill of his heart." 

This unbalanced mentality does not always arise 
from pathological conditions, but because of the 
hideous and ever-present fear that the source of his 
supply may be cut off. 

Once, a clever woman who fell to the underworld, 
told me she had never understood the full force of the 
words "I thirst," as uttered by the dying Nazarene, 
until she learned the drug-need. And yet, she claims 
to have never been without the necessary bolus for 
any length of time. Since then she had committed 
suicide. Ah well, it was Seneca who said, "There is 
one reason why we cannot complain of life: it keeps 
no one against his will." 

The lengths to which an addict will go to secure 
for himself a supply of narcotics has been told with 
appalling directness hy Dr. James A. Hamilton in 
describing the treatment given criminals who were 
found to be addicts and who, accordingly, were sen^ 
for treatment to the Correction Hospital, Blackwell's 
Island, New York. 

"The greater class of the patients," he says, "are 
addicts and we have learned to expect that while they 
are going through the cure we will be confronted with 
an alarming train of symptoms, and it is only an in- 
timate knowledge of the patient's condition that pre- 
vents us from making errors. 

"Hysterical attacks simulating epilepsy are frequent. 
Continuous vomiting, and hemorrhages (self -induced) 
are used in an effort to mislead the physician into 



DRUG BONDAGE 



311 



keeping them on the drug, or to work on the sym- 
pathies of those in authority to effect their release. 
Frequently cases have been transferred here in am- 
bulances, supposedly in a dying condition, when they 
could have walked ; and strange as it may seem, have 
often begged to be operated upon, perfectly willing 
to undergo an operation at the risk of losing their, lives 
only to obtain the few shots of morphine we give them 
after an operation." 

Dr. Prentice who also understands the drug 
"junkers" supremely well, has thrown light on how 
this drug supply is usually secured. "In the parlance 
of the underworld," he writes, "where the narcotic 
addict finds congenial atmosphere, there exists a 
swift and secret means of communication— a sort of 
'free masonry of their kind'— by which the 'script' 
doctors in a community are well known and accessible ^ 
to all the addict fraternity ... It often appears that 
the 'doc' himself is addicted to the 'dope'." 

When the addict ^or junker has not the money to 
obtain his supply from a doctor it happens in the 
larger cities that a pedlar will supply him with the cash. 
This sounds somewhat paradoxical and requires ex- 
planation. A pedlar, in his sinister vocation, may not 
entirely depend upon smuggled goods for his supply 
but decide it to be safer and surer to finance addicts 
who purchase at a drug store by means« of a doctor's 
prescription, it being agreed that the addict will divide 
evenly with the pedlar. The pedlar who is in himself 
a whole committee of ways and means, adulterates 
his half and sells it greatly in excess of the price 



312 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



charged by the doctor and druggist, thus making a 
handsome profit. Yes, Falstaff might almost have 
meant a drug pedlar when he said, "This is the most 
omnipotent villain that ever cried, 'Stand !' " 

Owing to the enforcement of the Harrison Nar- 
cotic Law in the United States, a large number of these 
addicts and pedlars have crossed the lines into our 
border cities where they have carried on a similar 
procedure with almost entire immunity from punish- 
ment. . ' v ■' 

These persons whose social rating is nothing to 
speak of, are known colloquially as "lush dips"-^-that 
is to say they rob drunken men. Some bolder mem- 
bers of the poppy circle operate upon the sober ones 
as well. These hold-ups have become so common in 
one of our border cities that the pedestrians are warned 
to walk on the outer edge of the sidewalks after dark 
lest they be struck down from doorways or pulled into 
them. All that and morel 

Reciprocally, Canada is sending a like clownish and' 
ignoble company into the United States, without any 
very active opposition on the part of Uncle Sam. 

The necessity of taking hold of the matter with cer- 
tainty and celerity is one that needs no round-about 
discussion, 

But to return to the fears of the addict, you and I. 
If he has a supply of drugs with little chance of its 
becoming seriously depleted, he is then in fear of 
being arrested and of the police finding his cache. A 
woman hides a certain amount in her hair, and a man- 
in his socks under the soles of his feet, but this is only 



DRUG BONDAGE 



313 



for immediate use. A woman traveller who was con- 
victed recently for having opium unlawfully in pos- 
session, kept her supply in a lemon-skin which she had 
hollowed out. On examining it closely, I found she 
had sewn the parts together with lemon colored thread 
which was hardly discernable. The lemon was rolled 
in its original tissue paper. 

Wealthy addicts often have runners, or sledders, 
who bring them new supplies,, but, as a general thing, 
a hiding place must be found outside the house. One 
family I knew kept their supply in a harmless looking 
lobster can that lay beneath the back steps with a col- 
lection of empty cans. 

No one dreamed that a searching squad of "tecs" 
would be so sour or unsympathetic as to turn over 
this pile of rusty tins, but they were; they assuredly 
were. 

Another family kept their tin in the back of an old 
three-wheeled buggy in the lot across the lane, and 
no one could be arrested for having drugs unlawfully 
in their possession until a late-lingering spotter hid in 
the family woodpile and caught a "boarder" carrying 
the can to the house. 

All these things have a rather cankering effect on 
the soul of an addict and fill his mind with the black- 
est of misgivings. It is no wonder at all that his 
nerves become jangled. 

But after all, the matter which most nearly con- 
cerns the public,* or the family that is cursed with an 
addict member, is just how to cure him. In one family 
we know of, three young persons have the habit. 



314 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



"Earth and Heaven! I can't do anything for my 
wife" said an irate man the other day, "She has be- 
come a positive weed and her demands for money are 
bankrupting me. I have inhibited her at all the drug 
stores but she still manages to gtt supplies. Tell me 
what to do with her. Is she really /diseased' as our 
doctor says, or is she plainly bad? Is there any cure 
for her?" 

These are intensely vital questions in, perhaps, a 
million homes and might well stagger the bravest 
writer on the subject. All one can do is to quote the 
latest opinions of the most eminent authorities and 
leave the matter there. 

Mrs. Sarah Mulhal of New York, who has had a 
wide experience, says the addict cannot cure himself 
and that he needs institutional care to this end. She 
points out that short term hospital treatment only 
results in a loss of time and money, in that the patients 
are physically and psychologically unprepared for the 
old temptations and environment. 

Then along comes Dr. James F. Rooney who says, 
"We have used the word 'cure' and we do not know 
what cure is. We have not arrived anywhere. Is an 
addict cured after you have taken him off the drug, 
and for how long is he cured?" 

H. D. Harper, the Chief of Police, in a letter written 
from Colorado tells us that "At the end of sixty days 
the convict is completely cured so there is no necessity 
for his further use of 'dope,' but many do go back to 
it after having taken the cure, though they have told 
me many times it is not through necessity but merely 
through temptation." 



DRUG BONDAGE 



315 



One woman declares in a letter that her husband's 
cure "lasted as long as a piece of tissue paper thrown 
upon the coals." 

In other words, social amendment seems to be a 
very large factor in the cure. The addict must not 
only be made whole, but kept whole. This means 
the giving a part of our lives to the task, and stands 
for something more than mere monetary assistance. 

Any who are called to the dire intensity of such a 
task had better read for their daily comfort the story 
of how John and Peter, having neither silver nor gold, 
went up to the gate of the temple which is called 
Beautiful, and there gave to the lame a "perfect sound- 
ness" of body; If a proper rein is allowed the ima- 
gination you will surely desire to test this thing for 
yourself. 

In the meantime, give us leave to quote some experts 
as to what should be done for the addict before he 
comes to the stage in his cure where the treatment is 
psychological or social. One of these experts says, 
"Drug addiction is now recognized as a pernicious 
habit and not as a disease. The treatment consists 
in gradually withdrawing the drug so that functions 
which have been inhibited so long may resume the 
normal gradually. The symptoms as they appear, are 
met by approved measures. Stimulation is sometimes 
required and hypnotics for a few days. The treatment 
is simple, any intelligent physician should be able to 
administer it successfully. Thousands of cases have 
passed through this department with no fatalties as 
against a high percentage of poor results in other 
institutions." 



316 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Although the words "gradually withdrawing" are 
used in the above citation, these refer to the cure 
known to the profession as "the immediate with- 
drawal," which cure is becoming generally recognized 
as the only valid one, and which we have elsewhere 
described in this volume. 

In order to assure the relatives of addicts that the 
cure is more humane and much more certain than 
any other, we quote from a political prisoner of mental 
superiority in one of the American penitentiaries who 
wrote his first-hand observations of the prisoners 
undergoing treatment for withdrawal of narcotic 
drugs. He said, "I have been in the hospital about 
eight months, and in the prison for a year. During 
that time, I have observed under treatment between 
fifty to seventy-five cases of narcotic drug addiction. 
I had no idea what a terrific affliction drug addiction 
is, until I saw its victims here. These represent the 
very lowest level of humanity; often very young men 
— mere boys from twenty to twenty-two years old — 
already wrecked! Such men as Victor Hugo speaks 
of in Les Miser ablest 'Men who are old* without ever 
having been young; possessing all the ignorance of 
youth, without any of its innocence.* 

'All these cases had been treated by immediate with- 
drawal of the drug, except those whose physical con- 
dition (disease) required more gradual methods. 
Generally speaking, from my own observations and 
from what the men tell me, they do not suffer. They 
say they have felt altogether better, when they had 
gotten off the drug., It seemed to revive and stimu- 



DRUG BONDAGE 



317 



late their will-power, which had been put in abeyance 
by the drug. I am gratified with the results of the 
treatment. Never has it failed in a single case to 
break off the habit, and in no single instance have I 
seen a bad result from the treatment. The men also 
express their gratification over the relief it affords 
them. -> The craving seems to be due, in party to un- 
certainty; as soon as the habitue realizes that there is 
no chance of his getting any 'dope/ he feels better 
in his mind, and his will is strengthened to stay off." 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE LIVING DEATH. 

How asps are hid beneath the flowers of bliss. 

— The Palace of Fortune, 

THE letter here following was written to me by 
a youth of marked ability who had done excel- 
lent work in England as a secret service agent arid 
who, accordingly, was competent to express an opinion 
on the qualifications of an addict in this capacity. 

His letter is of especial interest as showing the 
mentality of a man who has been using narcotics for 
three years, Plainly, he has become super-sensitive 
and suspicious. He thinks persons are saying things 
about him or, maybe, they are "voices" that he hears. 
His perspectives have become distorted so that, under 
certain circumstances, he could have committed mur- 
der and justified the act to his conscience. A psychia- 
trist would probably declare him to be suffering from 
cocaine paranoia. 

And yet, because of the rawness of his agony, we 
must ask if his words are applicable to ourselves — 
whether we have been unfair and insulting to the un- 
happy victims who have fallen under the wheels of 
the traffic. It is so easy to be both, for no person in the 
world can be so profoundly irritating as an addict. 

To be strong with them — unflinchingly strong — and 
yet gentle; ah well* this is not as easy as it sounds. 

318 



THE LIVING DEATH 



319 



Here, then, is the letter: 

"If addicts with the following qualifications 
are employed, a great majority will prove reliable 
if treated properly :— 

"(1) A person who can prove integrity and 
average ability previous to addiction. One who 
has held the respect of good people through suc- 
cess, ability and reliability. 

"(2) A person who has a powerful incentive 
to rehabilitate himself before his former friends 
and to win back his fortune by making good. 

"Not one per cent, of narcotic addicts make 
reliable detective agents because they are not 
handled in the proper manner. An addict is by 
the nature of his weakness, cautious, suspicious, 
and has very little faith in his fellow men. He 
has been victimized by the lowest type of human 
animal, namely the drug pedlar. He has been 
double-crossed, cheated, lied to and sneered at by 
his masters. He is also ridiculed or shunned like 
a leper by Christians who are hypocritical. Any 
experience he has had with the police has not as 
a rule taught him to love them. They consider 
him a liar and cheat, and treat him accordingly. 
An addict is a cornered beast who must fend for 
himself by any means in his power. It is easy to 
imagine the result. 

"Take the most model church-going Christian 

and treat him as you do an addict and see the 

phenomenon of a human being turning into a 

"rat." Now, on the other hand, there are a few 

11 



320 THE BLACK CANDLE 



of God's- Own Gentlemen on this earth who are 
so thoroughly imbued with Christ's real Chris- 
tianity that their heart goes out to an addict and 
these men often have their hands bit while offer- 
ing brotherly sympathy to the "cornered rat." 

"These good souls by their very broad-minded 
tolerance often do more harm than good by en- 
couraging an addict in the belief that his weak- 
ness is incurable. While sneers and ridicule will , 
never accomplish any good, neither will coddling 
sympathy. There is, however, a middle course 
to pursue which will succeed with an addict just 
as it always succeeds, in other problems where 
human nature is the chief factor to consider. 

"The man who can successfully follow this 
middle course with an addict* must be a big- 
minded man indeed. The average student of 
psychology is at sea when studying an addict. 
The psychologist is using a normal brain on what 
appears to be a normal problem with the result 
that his pet theories prove failures. His conceit 
will not permit him to admit failure, so he classes 
the addict as some kind of maniac impossible to 
handle. 

"The failure of the psychologist arises from his 
blind faith in his 'ology and makes him childish 
and ridiculous in failing to admit that an addict 
is just a human person with, maybe, more than 
the average human weakness. I repeat that the 
man who can successfully handle an addict must 
be exceptionally broad-minded, sympathetic and 



THE LIVING DEATH 



321 



optimistic, but he must also be a strict disciplin- 
arian. A man who will keep his promise whether 
it be reward or punishment 

"An addict looks for treachery all the time and 
he will misconstrue the most innocent word, or 
action into a plot against himself. He will accuse 
his mentor of the most ridiculous and imaginary 
plots to double-cross him. His abnormal brain 
is working up fantastic and impossible situations 
from practically no foundation and it completely 
blots out the most obvious view-point which any 
normal man would naturally take. An addict's 
mental gymnastics are something very hard to 
comprehend, but I can assure you that while he 
appears ridiculous in mental exercises, his ab- 
normal brain can find sound logic and correct de- 
ductions as a foundation for what you might call 
insanity, or at least absurdity. 

"To revert once more to the man who handles 
an addict successfully; you can easily see that his 
job is no sinecure ; and if he has the average clean 
man's characteristics, he has to exercise all his 
self-control to listen to those preposterous accusa- 
tions from a "rat" he is trying to help, That is 
where a man proves his broadness and practical 
Christianity. To swallow the insults without 
losing prestige is another side issue. 

"The greatest mistake made in handling an 
addict, as police informer or agent, is cutting 
him off from his supply of drugs. To do so, no 
matter how square and upright he wants to be, 



322 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



or has proven, is inviting him to turn back 
stronger than ever to his old love. Do not ever 
expect to have an ex-addict work among drugs, 
and play the game squarely. It is asking more 
than is humanly possible. To play squarely and 
to turn his whole effort against the drug traffic, 
is enough to demand of him apart from sending 
him forth with a drug craving among his old 
associates. The wise man will not expect it, but 
by slow and easy stages he can make the addict 
regain sufficient self-respect so that the craving 
for the old life will gradually disappear and a 
loathing for the whole traffic take its place, thus 
guaranteeing you an active honest agent who will 
fight the traffic for sheer love of battle and also 
for the personal revenge for what he suffered 
through it. 

"How many old police officers of long exper- 
ience will scoff and ridicule this idea. T would 
like to ask these same 'old-timers' 'how many 
square shooting addicts have you found in your 
experience ■?' I can hear them roar and say There 
is no such animal.' Their own treatment of ad- 
dicts would be in itself sufficient reason for ad- 
dicts becoming Vats.' 

" Never forget that, to begin 1 with, all addicts 
were ordinary human beings. As a rule, I have 
found the majority of addicts to have been men 
above the average in ability. Usually he is a 
clever man in some particular line but, running 
with sports and rounders, seeking a new 'kick* 



THE LIVING DEATH 



323 



or sensation from life, has finally bumped into 
cocaine. 

"His conceit in his ability makes him try a 
new 'kick' just to prove his superiority over the 
numskulls who have let cocaine put them in the 
gutter. He decides to show the world how it can 
be otherwise. 

"His first sensation is a speeding up of his in- 
tellect, the sharpening of his faculties and an im- 
mortal optimism, which is the expansion of his 
already large ego and there you have the future 
'rat.' The more schooled he was in decency, the 
more ingenious and devilish become his actions 
against his fellow men. 

"It is quite true that I have never heard of an 
addict who was forced into addiction. I was 
twenty-five and fairly well educated ; had travelled 
widely, but I had certainly mixed with coke rats 
who were so low that it was impossible to believe 
they were born of woman. 

"It is quite true that no one handcuffed me to 
drugs, and that I thought my eyes were open. 
As 'Mr. Wiseheimer' I would show them how to 
get the 'kick* out of coke without getting kicked 
myself. I firmly believed I could. Ihad never 
experienced a taste, habit, or passion in my life 
that I couldn't control before it became dangerous. 
I had been sodden for six months On whiskey. 
I loved it as whiskey, and I loved the effect. I 
made what I considered an awful ass of myself 
while drunk one night; and I never drank again. 



324 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE LIVING DEATH 



325 



h i 



I i 



I craved and yearned for it, but my conceit and 
vanity had been wounded so , deeply through 
whiskey that I would have died rather than fall 
for it. I was only nineteen then— the time when 
common sense is only a seed and conceit a full 
, blown flower. : 

"You will ask me how I account for the fact 
that at twenty-five with eleven years of travel and 
a thorough experience with all phases of life, in- 
cluding that of the great war that I should fall 
ignominiously for cocaine — fall miles lower than 
I ever fell for whiskey. 

"Either I had lost my senses or my morale 
and had become a degenerate. Neither conclusion 
would be true. I was in full possession of my 
senses and I still maintained the same code of 
ethics that I had learned from my mother's 
teaching. I maintain that I lived with my 
own conscience and that public opinion didn't 
hurt me if I could sleep with my conscience. I 
would feel keen remorse for hurting an animal or 
a weaker brother; but if I met a Philistine who 
doubted my honesty on a hypocritical snap judg- 
ment, I could rob that man with- the greatest 
of satisfaction and divide the spoils with unfor- 
tunate brothers. I could thereafter sleep easily 
and with no remorse at all. That was my creed. 
I believed that to play square with one's con- 
science was to play square with your fellow men. 

" 'Why did I fall for cocaine?' you ask. 

"Because of all agents of destruction* crime, 



degeneracy, and self -hypnosis, cocaine is so pre- 
eminently the most potent, and because ordinary 
roads to hell do not even show on the same map. 
Cocaine is the unfairest gamester of all. It is the 
greatest deceiver any man ever applied to his 
senses. Whiskey is a true sport in comparison. 

"A man drinks whiskey and excites his pas- 
sions. With most men its effect is purely physical 
as a stimulant, and while giving Dutch Courage 
to his body, at the same moment, it fogs his in- 
tellect. Whiskey shows you plainly that if you 
enjoy the 'kick' to-day, you must suffer the misery 
to-morrow. You pay whiskey its due within 
twenty-four hours of its enjoyment. You know 
this beforehand, and may take it or leave it. If 
the 'kick' is worth the sickness, go to it. 

"But, cocaine plays no such game. It never 
shows a fang, not even a pain, until it has you 
securely enmeshed. It would take more than your 
former will-power at its height to defeat it, for 
even if you do manage to abjure the actual drug, 
the memory and craving are ever present to tor- 
ture you, 

"Cocaine takes all you hold dear in life to-day 
— -love, honor, family, fortune, health — and in 
two weeks if you try to recall the awf ul trick it 
played you, you will find yourself justifying the 
cocaine. The only memories your mind retains 
are of those beautiful days of speeded intellect, 
super-intelligence, controlled passions and of the 
exquisitely clean mind, when you started using' 



326 THE BLACK CANDLE 



cocaine— those days when it was really bringing 
out all your better manhood; when its effect was 
like nothing on earth outside of ancient fairy 
tales ; when your whole concentrated powers could 
not see any ill effect from its use but, on the 
other hand, an evident benefit to your whole 
existence. 

"Yes, it 'kidded' you along, and you feel that 
so far as your case is concerned; it has proven a 
blessing instead of a curse. Of course, you ack- 
nowledge to yourself that it might affect others 
quite differently but to you it was the real elixir 
of life. 

"Then, Mrs. Murphy, you wake up. There 
takes place a crisis in your life which, in weak 
intellects, usually results in an 'overdose' of some- 
thing, the ambulance and, maybe the Potter's 
Field. However, if you are made of sterner stuff, 
or if your conceit dies hardly; you will then start 
a living death. You have the sense of hearing, 
but your mind is only conscious of a craving and 
of some memories. You look like a human being 
alright, but your fellows do not recognize you. 
Some sneer, some laugh, and some give you the 
sympathy that is usually served out to the weak- 
minded member of the family. In any and all 
cases you knOw you are being held in contempt. 

"There is something different in the quality of 
contempt meted out to drug fiends and that which 
is usually given to other weaklings or criminals. 
When a man is charged with rape, or with will- 



THE LIVING DEATH 



327 



ful murder, he at least earns the hatred and fear 
of his fellow men. Mixed with these emotions 
he is usually granted a certain respect which is 
admitted in the fear of him and, perhaps, for the 
nerve of him. 

"Now, to the addict there comes a form of con- 
tempt so insulting and narrow that it is marvel- 
lous murders are not more frequent as a method 
of wiping out the insult. I have been sneered at 
and ridiculed by men whom I have proven to be 
my intellectual inferiors time and time again— 
figureheads living on real men's productions, or 
filling a job that a machine would do better if it 
could walk and had eyes. This type is largely 
represented among male vamps and corner- 
mashers that will voice more abominations about 
some respectable girl, who turned from their lewd 
advances than a dope fiend would even think of 
the lowest prostitute, 

"Now, these brainless ninnies will sneer at and 
ridicule a real man who, in the hunting of some- 
thing new and exciting, became a slave to his 
surplus energy via the drug route. There is no 
need to worry about the ninny falling. He will 
never have brains enough to earn an income suffi- 
cient to buy drugs. He is as much a degererate 
of humanity as an addict He is a leech and a 
parasite* who without daring to experiment, will 
ridicule men who had the nerve; gambled, and 
— well, lost I'd like to see this type with ev«:n 
one per cent, of an addict's struggle to contend 



328 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



with.< He would surrender before it started. He 
is the village *cut~up' and 'wise guy' who would 
slander a girl's fair name* or rob her, to. satisfy 
his vulgar passions, yet feels himself far above 
the addict who probably never harmed anyone 
and, through sociability or daring, became an 
outcast. 

"I .will- 'tell all Christians (professed, practical 
or hypocritical) that had Christ met a dope fiend 
He would not have ridiculed him. He certainly 
would have respected him more than he would 
some of the all-knowing Pharisees who mould 
public opinions. 

"Let an addict straighten out, take a cure and 
start to fight; does the average citizen help him 
any? The addict is always under suspicion that 
he is using drugs surreptitiously and that the cure 
is only a 'bluff.' He cannot be trusted, he might 
go crazy and murder someone, or he might put 
dope in the good citizen's food ; in fact there is no 
limit to his capacity for, everything evil. 

"When' he is suffering, and fighting the hardest, 
Mr, Grundy whispers to Mrs. Gossip, 'Do you 
notice the expression of his face ? I wonder what 
diabolical plot he is hatching now? He really 
should be confined to some institution where he 
can't do any harm. But, I suppose if we find 
some of our citizens murdered one morning, the 
officials may take some action, after he has done 
the damage. It isn't right, you know, to jeopar- 
dize our lives for a worthless hulk like that.' 



THE LIVING DEATH 



329 



"Now, if you overheard such stuff from the 
narrow public who govern our opinions about 
yourself in the same predicament; what would 
you do? Would you try to climb out and suffer 
mental, physical and public torture, or would you 
take the line of least resistance and slip still fur- 
ther? You are no less human than an addict; 
and just when he is fighting for a foothold is the 
time when he is the most sensitive to insults. If 
these superior persons were only able to show 
where they fought a weakness or temptation and 
won a victory, it would give them some room for 
their attitude toward the weakling who loses the 
fight. 

"But they never had a weakness. They do not 
like whiskey so they do not drink it, but if they do 
like it they indulge themselves, thus satisfying the 
corresponding weakness in their own character, 
to that of the addict I do not see them doing 
without anything they crave unless it be too ex- 
pensive or entirely unobtainable. 

"When a practical Christian attitude is adopted 
towards the addicts, from that day you will see 
a diminishing of the drug evil instead of alarming 
increases taking place as at present. There is no 
way for a normal man to realize a narcotic ad- 
dict's unenviable position unless he be an addict 
himself. Of all things I have been up against — 
tasks, passions, habits or pastimes, drug addiction 
is the only one I acknowledge my master. Public 
opinion fails to sting me now because I have sur- 



330 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



vived a crisis which I know would have downed 
a large percentage of those witless 'Willies' whose 
idea of humor is to ridicule the crippled, maimed, 
and outcast." 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



MARAHUANA— A NEW MENACE. 

"My eyes are veiled, because I drink cups of bhang." 

—Afghan Song. 

HIS drug is not really new but, as yet, is com- 
paratively unknown , in the United States and 
'Canada*- although three of the American States — Cali- 
fornia, Missouri and Wyoming — have legislated 
against its use, the authorities and police officers 
generally being woefully ignorant of its nature or 
extraordinary menace. 

At the Convention held at The Hague in 1912, 
Italy suggested a study of this drug, holding that its 
use would increase as the opium traffic was suppressed. 

Marahuana is known by chemists and physicians as 
cannibis indica, and more commonly as Indian hemp. 
Sometimes it is called hasheesh or hashish. 

In Chapter 31 of The Count of Monte Crist o, 
Dumas gives us an account of a hashish debauch. In 
this chapter "Sinbad" the host, describes the green 
preserve as nothing less than the ambrosia which Hebe 
served at the table of Jupiter. "Sinbad" speaks of 
this as "the hashish of Alexandria-^the hashish of 
Abour-Gor, the celebrated maker, the only man to 
whom there should be built a palace, inscribed with 
these words, 'a grateful world to a dealer in 
happiness/ " 

331 



332 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Eminent medical doctors in India, principally at 
Calcutta, have made experiments with Cannibis Indka 
and have discovered that it induces symptoms of cata- 
lepsy or even of trance. It is also claimed that the 
fakers of India who suffer themselves to be buried, 
and who are later disinterred, do so through the agency 
of this drug. 

Some years ago, Dr. James Braid of Edinburgh 
wrote a monograph on this subject entitled "Trance 
and Human Hybernation," which was published by 
John Church of Princes Street, Soho, London. 

Hashish or hasheesh is the Arabic name and means 
literally "dried herb." It may be smoked, chewed or 
drunk. Our English word "assassin" comes from this 
word. 

The hemp resin for smoking and chewing comes 
in three forms — chang, ganja and charas. 

This Indian hemp is used chiefly in Asia Minor, 
India, Persia and Egypt, but is being increasingly 
used on this continent, particularly by the Mexicans, 
who smuggle it into the United States. Last year 
fifty-four persons were convicted for using, or pedd- 
ling it in Los Angeles, California. 

Charles A. Jones, the Chief of Police for the city, 
said in a recent letter that hashish, or Indian hemp, 
grows wild in Mexico but to raise this shrub in Cali- 
fornia constitutes a violation of the State Narcotic 
law. He says, "Persons' using this narcotic, smoke the 
dried leaves of the plant, which has the effect of 
driving them completely insane. The addict loses 
all sense of moral responsibility. Addicts to this drug, 



MARAHUANA— A NEW MENACE 333 



while under its influence, are immune to pain, and 
could be severely injured Without having any realiza- 
tion of their condition. While in this condition they 
become raving maniacs and are liable to kill or indulge 
in any form of violence to other persons, using the 
most savage methods of cruelty without, as said be- 
fore, any sense of moral responsibility. 

"When coming from under the influence of this 
narcotic, these victims present the most horrible con- 
dition imaginable. They are dispossessed of their 
natural and normal will power, and their mentality is 
that of idiots. If this drug is indulged in to any great 
extent, it ends in the untimely death of its addict." 

Mr. Hamilton Fyfe in The Real Mexico, writing of 
this drug says of it, "They (the Mexicans) madden 
themselves with a drug called Marahuana. This has 
strange and terrible effects. It appears to make those 
who swallow it do whatever is uppermost in their 
thoughts. At El Paso> a peon came across the Inter- 
national Bridge firing a rifle at all and sundry. Much 
talk against the Americans and a dose of Marahuana 
had decided him to invade the United States by him- 
self. The bridge-keeper quickly put a bullet into the 
poor wretch." 

W. H. B. Stoddart of the Bethlehem Royal Hos- 
pital of London, says the drug is used for the purpose 
of inducing pleasurable motor excitement and hallu- 
cinations which are commonly sexual in character 
among Eastern races. This contention is, however, 
denied by the Encyclopaedia Brittanica, which says 
there is no evidence that the drug is an aphrodiside. 



334 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Stoddart says further that hasheesh causes epi- 
gastric sensations, with anathesia of the arms and 
legs. The acute intoxication is characterized by 
sleepiness and "a certain impudent, dare-devil de- 
meanor." As in intoxication from alcohol, the gait is 
staggering. The addict has delusions of persecution 
or of measureless grandeur. Speaking of the latter 
delusion, Dr. Palmer writes that in India, under its 
influence, your servant is apt to make you a grand 
salaam instead of a sandwich, and offer you an houri 
when you merely demanded a red herring. 

Dr. Warnock in The Journal of Mental Sciences 
for January, 1903, states that acute mania from 
hasheesh varies from "a mild, short attack of excite- 
ment to a prolonged attack of furious mania, ending 
in exhaustion or even death." 

He describes the hasheesh user in the following 
words : "They are good-for-nothing lazy fellows who 
live by begging or stealing, and pester their relations 
for money to buy the hasheesh, often assaulting them 
when they refuse the demands. The moral degrada- 
tion of these cases is their most salient symptom ; loss 
of social position, shamelessness, addiction to lying 
and theft, and a loose, irregular life makes them a 
curse to their families/' 

It appears that in using this poison, the time-sense 
becomes impaired in such a way that time appears to 
pass slowly. One addict says (that on recovering 
from a debauch "It was like returning home from an 
eternity spent in loneliness among the palaces of 
strangers. Well may I say an eternity," he continues, 



MARAHUANA— A NEW MENACE 335 

"for during the whole day I could not rid myself of 
the feeling that I was separated from the preceding 
one by an immeasureable lapse of time." 

It is also a peculiarity of hasheesh that its fantasia 
almost invariably takes Oriental form. "It is hasheesh 
which makes both the Syrian and the Saxon Oriental," 
quoth one of its habitues. 

De Quincey tells the same of opium, but this may 
only have been because in normal hours his imagina- 
tion dallied with Eastern themes and scenes. Speak- 
ing of these fantasia with their "unimaginable hor- 
rors" he writes, "I was buried for a thousand years in 
stone coffins with mummies and sphinxes in narrow 
chambers at the heart of eternal pyramids. I was 
kissed with cancerous kisses, by crocodiles, and laid 
confounded with unutterable slimy things amongst 
reeds and nilotic mud." 

It is believed that the Arabian Nights were written 
under the motor excitement of hasheesh. The ro- 
mancer under its influence travelled on a magic carpet 
and saw strange lands and sights. 

Blown on some mystic wind conjured up by the 
drug, the modern habitue, in a phrensy of travel, 
passes through all latitudes in gigantic tours. Now, 
with" joyous lightness, he is "on the way to Mandalay," 
or again, in the prof oundest dejection, he has come to 
"say good-bye." He travels through marshy jungles, 
over mid-earth lakes, across desert plains, over valleys 
of roses, or in the high air where insane faces howl 
at him and curse horribly. 



336 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Sometime about the middle of the last century, a, 
remarkable volume entitled The Hasheesh Eater was 
written by Fitz-Hugh Ludlow, an American author of 
great ability and high culture. He was born in the 
State of New York in 1836 and died of consumption 
in Switzerland in 1870. He was special correspon- 
dent to the New York dailies ,* wrote much magazine 
literature and edited Vanity Fair from 1858 to 1860. 

The effects of hasheesh, "this weed of madness," 
being explained to him by a druggist, he was impelled 
by curiosity, and by a desire to record these effects 
scientifically to experiment with this narcotic, not only 
on himself but on his fellow students. 

There are plenty of folk who pretend to themselves 
that they yield to narcotic enchantment in a desire 
for research and not for sensual gratification, and 
that they inure their friends to its effects for the same 
reason, but, however kindly in judgment, one finds 
these statements hard to credit, and even if credited, 
only demonstrates these persons as rascals-manifest. 

Ludlow has described the delirium of hasheesh, 
with its hellish agonies, as no one ever did before, or 
could wish to again. He told of the jubilance from the 
drug, and of its reactory results in physical and men- 
tal depression; of the nervous waste from hasheesh 
addiction, and the necessity of again using the drug 
to supply the waste which it first occasioned. 

He also tells the story of his enfranchisement from 
this fell and deadly habit till that time when he was 
no longer "an outcast from man's league with God." 



MARAHUANA— A NEW MENACE 337 



It has been pointed out that there are three ways 
out from the regency of this addiction: 

1st — Insanity. 

2nd— Death. 

3rd— Abandonment. 

This is assuredly a direful trinity and one with 
which the public should be cognizant in order that they 
may be warned of the sharp danger that lies in even 
curiosly tasting poisons which have been inhibited, or 
which are habit-forming. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



ORDERS FOR SEARCH. 

"The common problem, yours, mine, everyone's." 

— Robert Browning 

! SBORNE, of Sing Sing, claims that, being the 
agents of Society, the police should always have 
the advantage over the criminal, for the criminal is 
the enemy of Society — the man whose hand is against 
every other man. 

For some strange reason, however, "the drop" is 
nearly always given the renegade in his efforts to es- 
cape detection, or to balk the law. 

Maybe, this is because, in the eyes of society, the 
criminal becomes the under-dog, and the police his 
"persecutors," an idea which is persistently fostered 
by Counsel for the Defence, and by some rescue 
workers. 

The policeman is called "the harness bull," the de- 
tective a "dick" or "'tec." These are always stupid 
amusing fellows, and the butt of many witticisms, 
especially at the picture houses. Even the poets cut 
a quill for them and make merry in their untimely 
demise. Says one : 

"The Captain of Police is dead, 
Through having lost his life." 

Mr. O. Henry, in a sentence witty, but unfair,; 

338 



ORDERS FOR SEARCH 



339 



defines a policeman as a person who "takes kids up, 
women across and men in." 

Getting a warrant to search a place for a suspected 
cache Of poisons is almost as difficult as getting a pass- 
port to Russia. Society holds up its hands in horror 
and talks of "violated rights" if a policeman appears 
at its door with an order for search, and calls him 
names, the scope of which can only be measured by 
their ability to pronounce the English language. It 
is absolutely astounding what a hullabaloo can be made 
by an otherwise perfectly gentle lady, who has been 
asked to open her trunk or pass over her keys. 

A most casual consideration shows, however, that 
if a cache of deleterious drugs be found in a suspected 
house, the magistrate's order was justified; if not 
found, the householder has a very high joke on his 
side^ and all the satisfaction. He may know, too, 
that as a citizen he has "the proved pre-eminence of 
worth," or— well, that the police through some favor- 
able revolution of the stars, walked right over the 
cache and never noticed it. 

If a housewife has the corners of her cupboards 
clean, and last night's dishes Washed, there is no great 
trouble in the letting police "look through" any more 
than prospective buyers or inspectors from the gas 
company. 

Of course, it occasionally happens that some head- 
strong, dry-hearted fellow actually pries off a base- 
board, or slashes into the darkness of the coal-bin with 
the electric bulb he carries, for, like an old huntsman, 
the trained detective takes every thing into con- 
sideration. 



340 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Probably, too, the detective has been tipped off as 
to the exact location of the hidden treasure. I can- 
not believe that the man on our morality squad who 
lifted a pail of water and found a can of opium under 
the floor at this particular spot, was acting on any- 
thing but a tip. There is a Hindu proverb which says 
the more you know, the better luck you have. 

Although he is a busy-eyed man at all times, and 
something of a spoil-sport for drug runners, I have 
always suspected that the officer who found cocaine, 
in the coal-scuttle had been definitely instructed by 
some sour sulky addict. It never fortuned that way. 
How could mortal man discern that there was a false 
bottom in a harmless looking scuttle that stood by 
the fireplace ? Just riddle me that. 

Yes! we may as well tell it here that most of the 
"tipping off" comes from addicts who have fallen out 
with the pedlar for refusing them credit and who, in 
the gall of their hearts, desire to have revenge on him. 
No pedlar's cache is ever safe and he is always looking 
for "shadows." To use the colloquialism of the pro- 
fession "he is on the dodge." 

Indeed, an addict has been known to "plant" dope 
in the pocket or in the hat-band of , a pedlar who re- 
fuses to supply drugs on demand, and then to inform 
the detectives. Incidentally, the addict wins the praise 
he covets, as well as half the fine. 

A pedlar will do the same with a rival pedlar. 
Truly, the ways of the traffic are devious and past 
finding out, also they are entirely lacking in that qual- 
ity known as ethics. 



ORDERS FOR SEARCH 341 

In order to keep intact his hidden stores against 
sudden raids, many devices have been tried by the ped- 
lar, and some have proven satisfactory for awhile. 

He may cache his drugs inside a watch case, the 
works of which have been removed; in the collar of 
his dog; in the heel of his boot; in the drawer of a 
safety-deposit vault, * or skilfully rolled in rice paper 
in the form of cigarettes. Women have been known 
to secrete cocaine inside of a doll, in a cocoanut, or in 
a pot of cold cream. 

Others have hidden their supply under what ap- 
peared to be a solid tile flooring, but which actually 
had a section that lifted up after the manner of a 
trap-door. 

A detective who could cope successfully with these 
devices must be a veritable Argus with eyes all over 
his body and a mind filled with the most unhandsome 
suspicions. Also, he needs to pack "a shooting iron" 
as a prophylactic against evil influences of a sudden 
nature. 

A large cache of drugs was kept hidden in the 
basement of a. well-known hotel in Edmonton behind 
doors of heavy timber, which had been reinforced 
by ponderous bolts and iron bars. When the police 
would appear with their warrant, no entrance was 
given until the drugs and all the pipes were consumed 
on the hot coals of the furnace. The game was put a 
stop to by the officers forcing the door and carrying 
it off to the police station as "Exhibit A." 

These pedlars are "go betweens" in the employ of 
the drug-rings, it being their business to distribute the 



342 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



drugs 'to the unfortunate users. Also, it is their busi- 
ness to create a trade, and to this end, cocaine and 
morphine are frequently given away to girls and young 
men in order that they may acquire the appetite— a 
kind of throwing a sprat to catch a herring. 

Many of these propagandists, boosters or recruiters 
are to be found among the taxi-drivers and waiters in 
cafes. Indeed, it was shown recently that every em- 
ployee in a certain western cafe was a drug addict and 
that four of these were pedlars with a keen assiduity 
to sell. 

The waiters often sell on a commission of from 25 
to 35 per cent. The commission man is usually a 
foreigner for whom the whites "work." On the other 
hand, the taxi-driver usually makes his profit by charg- 
ing the customer a carrying fee. That is to say, 
having received a request for "M" or "C»" he will 
drive to "the hang out" and get it, charging the cus- 
tomer a dollar or two for having made the trip. 

If the customer asks for morphine or cocaine, he 
will find the driver to be deeply aggrieved by this 
wicked insinuation and the serious impeachment of his. 
character. For this reason, the customer must always 
remember to use the alphabetical letters, "M" or "C." 

A Government official in Western Canada tells us 
of a traveller from the United States who, stepping off 
the train, was offered and purchased cocaine from one 
of the taxi-drivers at the railway station. By one of 
those extreme slips of fortune, they were espied and 
both arrested. Both were subsequently convicted of a 
breach of the Opium and Drugs Act, but, before being 



ORDERS FOR SEARCH 



343 



deported to the United States, the traveller explained 
to this Government official how the taxi-driver came 
to sell him cocaine, 

"He did not volunteer to sell me the drug as the 
police alleged at the trial. I gave 'the high sign' to 
the line of drivers and he was the one who took it up. 
The others had probably no cocaine to sell." 

The sign is so simple it would be full easy to relate. 

"Tell it then!" you say. Ah, Sirs and Madams, it 
was one Festus, a sagacious man of high intent, who 
said " 'Tis not my will that evil be immortal." 

But returning to the subject of strong-rooms as 
hiding places for opiates, it is probable that most of 
the larger Canadian cities have their quota of these. 

In a certain eastern Canadian city, the chief con- 
stable, who stipulates with us that his name or city 
be not mentioned, received information from a member 
of the underworld that a certain party was selling, 
cocaine and morphine on a very large scale. The in- 
formant furnished the constable with the address of 
the apartment, which was located in the centre of a 
large block, and instructed him how to reach it 

Many hallways, stairways, rooms and alleyways 
had to be passed through in order to ultimately arrive 
at the hiding-place, where a peculiar knock known only 
to the initiated, was to be given on the door. The offi- 
cer was further told that the vendor of the drugs 
would open a small slat in the door to receive the 
money and that in a few minutes afterwards, the 
vendor would extend his hand with the package 
through the same opening. 



344 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



The information given the chief constable was taken 
down in great detail, and the instructions followed out 
to the letter. It was then arranged for the most 
powerful detective on the Force to go with the police 
sergeant to make the purchase, and that when the 
vendor put the package through the door, the detective 
would grasp his hand while the sergeant would slip 
on the handcuffs, thus preventing its withdrawal. 

At the appointed time they arrived at the apartment 
and gave the correct knock, passing their money ,, 
through. A few minutes later, the seller reached his 
hand through to deliver the drugs. The detective 
grabbed his hand but failed to hold it, as it slipped 
away quite easily, much to the astonishment of the 
officers. Alas, and alas! even clever officers may neg- 
lect to figure on the contingency of a vendor greasing 
his hand. 

The officers had been previously told that the door 
was very heavy and supported by steel bars at the top, 
centre and bottom. They managed, nevertheless, to 
batter it in, but found, on entering, that their bird 
had flown, leaving behind him some money and a very 
large amount of cocaine and morphine. 

After a thorough search of the premises, they found 
an opening from the cellar under these particular 
apartments, into the adjoining cellar, and from this 
cellar to a still further one. They kept up the search 
with diligence and were eventually rewarded by finding 
a huddled form behind a pile of boxes in a damp 
corner of the third cellar. It was not necessary to 
question him as to the ownership of the drugs, al- 



ORDERS FOR SEARCH 



345 



though he did confess to this, his well-greased palm 
being, well — first-hand evidence of the fact. 

But a detective's tribulations do not always come 
from the powerful criminal, the irate householder, or 
the unsympathetic public. In searching for contra- 
band drugs, he is forced to observe caution in his every 
movement. Even in getting warrants, he must be 
careful as to who types or sees the papers, and in all 
the procedure to act upon the principle of safety first. 
It happens, not infrequently, that before the squad 
leave the station, their destination has become known, 
and all is quiet when they arrive with the warrant. 
The police may "spot" the public, but in return they 
ar<* spotted themselves, the return being a hundred to 
one. 

It seems a pity, too, that public opinion must be 
excited before the detectives can clean up a city. 
Because of the flabbiness of opinion, a campaign for 
law enforcement must be instituted, before effectual 
work is accomplished. 

Let no one think that equality of justice is handed 
down without discrimination, for such is not the case. 
High profiteering personages leave nothing undone 
through bribery, intrigue, intimidation, or through 
social approach, to break down the moral stamina of 
those whose duty it is to make the law effective. 

Mr. Henry Ford spoke to the point when he said 
recently, "The lawlessness which most needs to be 
denounced is not that kind of which the police and 
courts take cognizance, but that which is permeating 
classes of society which have too long been regarded 



346 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



as respectable. We seem to have forgotten that the 
word 'respectable' means 'worthy of respect/ not 
merely well placed socially and financially, and adroitly 
able to keep out of the hands of the police . . /Re- 
spect for law. is: a sentiment restricted to people fit 
to be free; all others fear the law." 



CHAPTER XXV. 



THE SPOTTER AND STOOLER. 
Out damned spot— Shakespeare. 

ANYONE who has much to do with the public 
knows how easily people may be hypnotised by 
words. One such, is the word "spotter" as applied to 
secret service men or to special agents of the police. 
It has come to mean something almost reprobate, 
whereas it really stands for safety, success, beneficence 
and several other things. When a singer on the vaude- 
ville stage stands in the dark, someone hidden in the 
rear of the theatre turns a circular light on him, and 
as the singer moves out and about, the light continues 
to follow and to show his every action. The public 
applaud and the singer is pleased because he is, in 
the spot-light. , : 

But let the police, for the detection of crime, turn 
the spotlight on someone who stands in the darkness 
and just give ear to the outcry. Why society should 
give "the drop" to the criminal instead of to those 
officers who represent themselves seems hard to 
understand. 

Perhaps, it arises from the fact that one's sympa- 
thies naturally turn toward a person who has been 
captured, and who therefore suffers. Yet, although 
punishment be imposed on the wrong-doer it is not 
imposed revengefully, but solely for the protection of 

■< " ■':■■' 347 /■ 



348 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



the citizen. To the prisoner himself the punishment 
itself is often salutary, and some can be found who 
acknowledge to it at a later period. 

The pedlar and bootlegger make outcry when ar- 
rested, not because they care anything for public 
opinion, or public security, but because they fear 
losing money going to jail. 

"What is the world coming to anyway?" ask these, 
pestered, irritated gentry, "there ought to be a law I 
against this spotting." 

So long as the "harness bulls" Wear their uniforms, 
it is alright — no one cares— but when a "smooth guy" 
dressed exactly like themselves comes along and nabs 
them the thing becomes atrocious, unfair, indecent. 
Police ought to go hunting for criminals with bells 
and banners instead of flashlights and those ugly- 
looking sawed-off guns which they call "gats." In- 
deed, they should ! 

In the police court, counsel for the defence, draws 
attention to the "iniquity" of the system wishing to 
make his client appear as the victim of depraved and 
unreliable persecutors. He becomes virulently, abusive 
and even looks as though he might be spoiling for a 
fight. Reporters pick up his words, and even the Bench 
has shown signs of enthrallment. 

Most of this talk, however, is irresponsible, for the 
following day, or even on the same day, this same 
counsel argues quite as vehemently for the prosecution 
where the spotter's evidence is the only kind adduced. 

And then, strange to relate, when some citizen who 
has been clamourously condemning what he considers 



THE SPOTTER AND STOOLER 349 

to be uncivilized methods, finds that his wife's diamond 
ring has been stolen by the last hired girl, or that some 
arch-criminal has purloined a dozen cases of spirituous 
liquor from his cellar, he hies him to the police station 
to demand the immediate and constant service of every 
"spotter" and "stooler" in the city. To him, on this 
occasion, the only wicked "stool" is the toadstool. In 
his importunity of the police, it is marvellous how 
elastic and easeful his methods become. 

Yet, unless "stool pigeons" and "spotters" are used 
extensively, it is not even remotely possible to break 
the grip of the drug King. We must have stooler s 
and plenty of them. The stooler is paid out of police 
funds, and large sums of money will have to be laid 
aside for this purpose. 

Why not use informers you ask, instead of stoolers? 
The answer is easy, the informer being paid for his 
work through a moiety of the fine, it becomes impera- 
tive that a fine be imposed instead of imprisonment 
which is exactly what the Ring is hoping for. A fine 
is a sort of amusement and makes as much impression 
upon the Ring as would the print of a mosquito's heel, 

Besides, when it comes to the consideration of a 
"frame-up" or "plant," there is no reason to suppose 
that an informer is any more reliable than either a 
spotter or a stooler. These spotters can horn their 
way m almost any place and get evidence but, after 
all, it is the marked money and the purchased drugs 
that count. These are a corroboration of the stooler' s 
story which it is hard to overlook. 

It does not really make much difference whether 



350 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



THE SPOTTER AND STOOLER 351 



the spotter knows the Ten Commandments or not. 
The squad, whether it be a drug or morality squad, 
takes no chances on his lying to them. The man is 
searched and relieved of all money. Then he gets 
marked money from the police. With this he goes 
into the opium joint and buys opium, morphine, co- 
caine or other allied poisons. 

When he comes out, he hands over his purchase, 
whereupon the police get a warrant to search, if one 
has not already been granted them ; enter the premises, 
search the inmates and secure the marked money. 
Also they usually find the stock of narcotics, which 
they seize and produce in court as evidence. There 
may be a more effective way than this but, up to the 
present, no one has evolved it. 

It is true that the squad could make the search with- | 
out the stooler, but in such an event, they would have 
no evidence of sale. The case would be one of "having. | 
in possession." 

If they did not find the drugs, like as not, certain^ 
clamorous clouts in sympathy with the evasion of 
law rather than with its enforcement, would demand :| 
that all the squad be disciplined, or even dismissed j 
for the -'unwarranted interference" with the rights j 
and liberties of highly respectable ratepayers. You- 
may have noticed that persons who talk a great deal, 
about their liberties, usually mean their liberty to do j 
wrong. 

Yes! it is surely a sorry scrape to be a sleuth in i 
spite of the mystery and romance woven around the 
profession by story writers in lurid magazines. 



■ ■'■ ... n. . ■ .;. 

As a matter of fact, the most vexatious spotting is 
that to which the police and their agents are, them- 
selves, subjected. The drug and whiskey Rings keep 
spotters whose sole business is to post them on all 
plans of the police. They have these spotters in legal 
offices, and even in the police offices. If a raid is 
about to take place, the police do not leave the station 
in a body, but have an appointed rendezvous in another 
part of the city. The inspector or the sergeant in 
charge, does not tell his men the place to be raided 
until they approach it He takes no chances on the 
quarry being tipped off- — that is he doesn't if he is an 
experienced officer. 

Many drug stores, and other stores, which are 
"fences" for contraband drugs or spirituous liquors 
keep a spotter to loiter around their place and watch 
the police. These spotters are especially disturbed if 
a closed car stops opposite the store for any length 
of time. Such a car has been known to contain police 
the very sight of which affects him like a nicked knife 
blade. 

At any rate, the mass hysteria about stoolers and 
spotters as appointed by the chief -constable, or by the 
police commission, is, not only unwarranted but posi- 
tively prevents the effective and speedy detection of 
crime. . • '■■ ."\- ■ ■ ■■. 

The evidence of the stool pigeon or agent pro- 
vocateur was referred to in February of this year, in 
a judgment of the Privy Council, in an appeal from 

12 



352 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



the Supreme Court of Canada, in the matter of the 
King v Nat Bell Liquor Ltd. Their Lordships said 
that if Bolsing, who was used in this capacity, im- 
pressed the Justice as a witness of truth, no error in 
law was committed in 'believing him, even without 
corroboration, but there was in fact the corroboration 
of money given him by the constable-detectives. 

In the detection of illicit sales, the best "stool" is 
a pedlar under sentence of* imprisonment. He is 
afraid that others will secure his customers while he 
is incarcerated, so thinks it excellent policy to assist 
in having rivals hauled off to jail. This is an exempli- 
fication of the old adage "set a thief to catch a thief." 

It is argued that it is immoral for a man to buy 
contraband poisons from a dealer, thus causing the 
dealer to offend, but this can hardly be considered 
applicable in cases where the sole business of the 
trafficker is of a criminal nature. It is only when 
the drugs are to be consumed that the sale is commonly 
considered legitimate. A person who buys them as 
evidence is anathema. 

Applied to law-abiding persons who would thereby J 
suffer debasement, the conditions are wholly different 
and "stooling" should never for a moment be applied. | 
Indeed, it never is, and it is not thinkable that the 
police will deliberately set out to induce innocent per- 
sons to sell narcotics or spirituous liquors, thereby 
taking upon themselves the risk of dismissal as well J 
as the possibility of a charge of conspiracy, or of ;j 
perjury. 

Sometimes, the stooler is used after a detective Msi 



THE SPOTTER AND STOOLER 353 



been living for days or even weeks m the drug colony, 
and has secured first-hand knowledge of the facts, in 
which event a mistake can hardly be made. A skilled 
detective seldom comes out of cover. This procedure 
would destroy his future work. 

One detective whom we know, used to pose as an 
expert in telling fortunes by cards, and in this way — 
being what is commonly called "a jollier" — gave dar- 
ing leads to his clients which generally resulted in 
whispered confidences to the seer. In one instance, 
he persuaded a woman to forego a journey she had 
planned that day because her cards showed wretched 
luck. 

The luck, it turned out, occurred to her later in the 
same day when a special squad raided her room and 
found a suitcase containing a large quantity of mor- 
phine which she had packed to distribute to smaller 
fry along her railway route. 

"A mean trick," you say. Yes! we reply, just as 
mean as trapping a tiger, red in tooth and claw with 
the blood of human kind. Persons who waste sym- 
pathy on the trapping of a narcotic distributor, do so 
because they have no knowledge of the havoc wrought, 
or of the impossibility of restoration once the dis- 
tributor has finished his deadly work. "The drug 
pedlar," says an editor of one of our papers, "is a 
worse menace than a mad dog." This being the case, 
why trouble over the technicalities in catching the dog. 
The thing is to catch him and, if possible, to cure his 
hydrophobia. 

Speaking of the hazards and hardships endured by 



354 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



police officers in the safe-guarding of property and 
human life, Chief Joseph Ouigley of Rochester said 
recently: — "Within the past twenty years, thousands 
of police officers have given up their lives in the cause 
of internal order and peace. Have the public ade- 
quately recognized such service? I am afraid they 
have not . . . The time is not far distant when their 
sturdy loyalty and heroic deeds will be recognized, 
and regarded in a manner in keeping with that 
bestowed for patriotism and valor/' 

In no branch of police service are these words more 
applicable than in dealing with the drug fiend. It should 
not be necessary, therefore, to make any special plea 
to the public for an endorsement of their work, nor 
unreasonable to expect a solid and persistent backing 
of the same. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

DRUGS GENERALLY. 

Anything green that grew out of the mould 
Was an excellent herb to our fathers of old. 

— Kipling. 

THAT cocaine has been used as a stimulant for 
many centuries is evidenced by the finding of it 
in bags suspended from the necks of mummies. With 
it, are frequently found gourds containing lime, this 
having been used with the leaves to set free their alka- 
loid, just as the people of India use lime with betel 
nuts. 

In these later days, cocaine is mixed with different 
alcoholic liquors to secure the effects desired by cer- 
tain classes. 

A mixture of cocaine and gin is greatly favored 
by the negroes, and from its effects on the unfortunate 
consumer, might be "the bottled lightning" of Mrs. 
Nickleby's sweetheart. This drink is also favored by 
young "bloods" who keep it for parties where the 
guests are restricted in number, but usually unselect. 

Rum and cocaine, are compounded into a drink 
known as the soldier's cocktail because of its popu- 
larity among addicted men. Its effects are similar to 
that of the undelectable drink called "moonshine," the 
intoxication being one of such absolute completeness 

355 



356 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



DRUGS GENERALLY 



357 



as to bring it well within the scope of the definitional 
poem, 



I 1 

■if 



"Not drunk is he that from the floor 
Can rise again and still drink more; 
But drunk is he who prostrate lies 
Without the help to drink or rise." 



well, 



The admixture of cocaine and alcohol — ah 
the less said about it the better. 

The ingredients of these drinks are not here related 
with the idea of enlightening the public as to con- 
coctions, but solely that it may be warned of the highly 
discomposing properties in what may be offered as, a 
mere "friendly glass," Sometimes, after a hard day's 
work it seems to us that half the trouble in the world 
comes from this very cause. t 

Mr. W. E. Safford, the Economic Botanist of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, in the Annual Re- 
port of the Smithsonian Institute of 1916, has written 
on the narcotic plants and stimulants of the ancient 
Americans and has suggested that investigations be 
made into these less known narcotics in order to de- 
termine the nature of their properties, looking to their 
utilization as substitutes for others now recognized 
in the standard pharmacopoeias. 

Mr. Safford has summarized their principal nar- 
cotic plants and stimulants as tobacco, cacao, guarana, 
cohoba, peyotl, yerba mate, ololiuhqui, jimson weed, 1 
cocoa, aya-huasca, huaca-cachu, and the red bean. He 1 
says these were used in ceremonials, in divination, and 1 
in medicine by the Indians, and often carried asl 
amulets to insure success in the chase and in warfare*;! 

Among these the jimison, or Jamestown weed. 



(Datura stramonium) is notable as having intoxi- 
cated the British soldiers sent in 1676 to quell the up- 
rising known as Bacon's rebellion. Robert Beverly 
tells of its effects on the soldiers in his History and 
Present State of Virginia (1705). "One would blow 
up a Feather in the Air; another would dart Straws at 
it with. much fury, and another stark naked was sitting 
up in a Corner like a monkey, grinning and making 
mows at them; a Fourth would fondly kiss and paw 
his Companions, and snear in their faces with a 
countenance more antick than in any Dutch E)roll. 
In this frantick condition they were confined lest 
they should in their folly destroy themselves; though 
it was observed, that all their actions were full of 
Innocence and good Nature." 

II. 
Of late, there has been a good deal said of a mys- 
terious drug which was a positive cure for addiction, 
this being the drug which produces "the twilight 
sleep," used sometimes in childbirth. Under its in- 
fluence, the patient remains in a stupefied condition 
for several days. 

It is not regarded as successful in, curing drug ad- 
diction, its use being attended with danger, although, 
in , the immediate withdrawal cure, it is sometimes 
indicated to "mask the symptoms" during the first 
day or two of the treatment, the effect being that of 
an hypnotic. It is known to chemists and physicians 
\as scopoiamin hybrobr ornate, but to the public as 
hyoscine. 



358 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Hyoscine is used in producing sleep in cases of 
acute mania, and as an adjunct to, or substitute for 
ordinary anaesthetics, where the operation is likely 
to be prolonged. 

During the present year, tests of its effects on 
criminals have been demonstrated. The claim is made 
that, when injected into the blood, its mental effect 
is to produce paralysis of the imagination thus render- 
ing the patient incapable of telling anything but the 
truth. The physicians have accordingly dubbed it, "the 
truth serum." 

Recently at Dallas, Texas, some of the prisoners 
at the jail submitted themselves voluntarily for the 
experiment in the presence of the prison officials, 
physicians and District Attorney Maury Hughes. 

"Did you rob Guy's pharmacy?" was asked of a 
prisoner under its influence. 

"No, I don't even know where it is." 

This prisoner, although sentenced to prison for the 
robbery, had always maintained his innocence. 

"Who robbed the Hondo Bank?" The District At- 
torney asked. 

The prisoner gave the names of five men. While 
conscious he had refused to give this information. 

Another drug sometimes used in treating the nar- 
cotic habit is known as dionin. This drug is the salts 
morphine and is an odorless, white, or nearly white 
crystalline powder, possessing a bitter taste. It is 
also useful in the treatment of consumption, bronchitis 
and eye affections. 



DRUGS GENERALLY 



359 



III. 

In Carolina, Virginia, and other of the Southern 
States, the negroes are given to the chewing of cam- 
phor gum. It has the effect of speeding the heart's 
action. 

Copenhagen snuff is also used by the "tar heelers" 
of North Carolina but, for that matter, its use is 
fairly general in all parts of the continent. It is pre- 
pared from strong tobacco treated with bromides. 

In the lumber woods where men are full-blooded 
and desire "an effect," they have been known to snuff 
it, taste it, and inject it into a vein all at the same 
time. The snuff has an unpleasant odor, burns the 
end of the tongue, and tastes like salted perfume. 

Heroin, a German preparation of morphine, may 
also be snuffed up the nostrils usually by means of a 
quill or a nail file. It is three times stronger than 
morphine and is designated as "hell-dust" or "the 
powder of destruction." 

Speaking of the different drugs, Judge Cornelius 
F. Collins has said, "Heroin is undoubtedly the most 
pernicious, both as to the number of its victims and 
the difficulty of overcoming its ravages." 

Heroin is one of those artificial energies that are 
destructive of the natural so that its user becomes 
indolent and unemployable. Like the men described 
by Plautus, "He dreams awake." 

Mrs. Mulhal states that, "Once the habit is estab- 
lished, interest is lost in work. The addicts become 
late and irregular in their hours of work and finally 
throw up their positions ... In its most vicious 



360 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



phases, the power of dispensing this much prized drug 
is one of the surest ways for a 'Fagin' to hold his 
pupils, or a white-slaver to maintain his control over 
his prey." 

Heroin orgies are frequent because the drug gives 
"a rear" or "thrill" sooner than opium. One of its 
effects is to destroy the memory. Under its thrall, he 
becomes "a clot of passions fierce and blind." 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



SALVAGE. 

By open speech and simple 
A hundred times made plain, 
; To seek another's 'profit 

And work another's gain. 

— Rudyard Kipling. 

IN dealing with the problems of drug addiction in 
this volume, we have endeavored to suggest the 
remedy appropriate to each as it arose. 

Reaching the concluding chapters, there comes to us 
suggestions and recommendations which have not been 
made, or made but vaguely. We venture modestly to 
suggest a few for the consideration of our readers. 
Some of these have already been tried in different 
parts of America with marked success ; others have 
not been so successful, but none have failed entirely. 
All are open to improvement and to adaptation. 

... In the United States, co-operation between the 
federal, state, and city authorities in the enforcement 
of narcotic laws is much more pronounced than in 
Canada. 

S The American Federal Law is known as the Har- 
rison Narcotic Act, but each State has its own special 
enactments covering the various phases of the traffic. 

In Canada, our Federal law is known as the Opium 
and Drugs Act. With the exception of Manitoba, 
none of the Provinces have passed narcotic laws of 

361 



362 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



their own. And, yet, without a doubt, if we are to 
deal with the traffic effectively, the Opium and Drugs 
Act must be followed up in the several provinces by 
uniform laws in harmony with and supplemental to 
this Act, 

This is particularly required in the control of medi- 
cal abuse of narcotic drugs, the provinces possessing 
the power to revoke the license to practise medicine, 
dentistry or for veterinary practice. l 

To this end, there should be appointed a Committee 
on Uniform Provincial Narcotic Laws which should 
co-operate with committees representing the pharma- 
ceutical associations, and the professions above named. 
Provincial laws should be submitted to the Federal 
Government before being promulgated in order to 
eliminate unnecessary duplication of records, and so 
that they may not in any way conflict. 

No time should be lost in the forming of these com- 
mittees if we are to believe that celerity means double 
strokes in warfare. 

It has been pointed out recently by the Department 
of Health at Ottawa, that they are not attempting to 
supercede the work of the provincial and municipal 
authorities in the enforcement bf the Opium and 
Drugs Act, but only endeavoring to assist them In 
stamping out this drug traffic which, during the past 
fourteen years, has gained such a tremendous foot- 
hold in Canada. 

This seems a good place to point out that since the 
Department of Health was established two or three 
years ago, the officers have persistently and fearlessly 



SALVAGE 



363 



brougtit the matter to the notice of the people in an 
effort to stamp out the traffic and have taken what- 
ever steps deemed practical to its control. For this, 
they deserve the highest commendation. 

One of these officials writing a day or two ago said, 
"When the Department of Health began to adminis- 
ter the Opium and Drugs Act, it was never dreamed 
that this traffic had such a large foothold in many of 
the smaller towns and cities throughout the Dominion, 
but it was the general impression that the traffic was 
confined to larger cities, which impression was, of 
course, altogether wrong, as experience has since 
proven." 

Continuing he says — and perhaps all workers 
Whether official or jnon-official will underscore his 
words— "What we need more than any other thing in 
dealing effectively with this drug menace is co-opera- 
tion. It matters not who actually does the work of ar- 
resting the individual concerned, or secures the convic- 
tion, so long as it is done, but until we can bring about 
this spirit which is so much to be desired, it is almost 
^impossible to do good work . . . It is a far bigger 
question than most of the lay minds have any con- 
ception of, and can only be dealt with in a practical 
way by those who have an intimate knowledge of 
the traffic and the class of people connected with it. 
I would again emphasize that the only practical way 
of dealing with this drug-menace in Canada, if it can 
be stamped out within a reasonable time (and it can 
be done) is by CO-OPERATION." 

In the provinces, there should be a Narcotic Division 



364 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



of the Department of Health even as there is feder- 
ally, and this Division should be given broad powers 
in controlling drug addiction in order that amendatory 
legislation might not be necessary at every session of 
parliament. 

In the United States arrangements are made for the 
giving of lectures and the disseminating of general 
propaganda concerning the drug evil. Local leagues 
are also being formed. This is a work which de- 
volves upon the States, as in Canada it would devolve 
upon the Provinces. 

II. 

In framing remedial measures, we need more rigid 
enactments — laws with teeth in them — for the hand- 
ling of addicts. 

In taking this stand, we are well aware that we 
draw upon ourselves a, storm of criticism, and possibly 
of invective. There were days when we would have 
joined in such an outcry ourselves, but stern exper- 
iences have led us to form other conclusions on the 
subject. Our change of opinion is not that we desire 
to see punishment inflicted for the sake of punishment, 
but because we look to the extermination of the traffic. 
That is a wise text the Buddhists preach, "First 
observe the man; then preach the law." 

While it is necessary to deal with the source of 
supply — viz : with the producers, manufacturers, drug 
Rings, pedlars, and illicit dealers generally — it is 
equally true that we must deal with the consumer. 

So long as there is an addict craving sleep-producing 
drugs, or drugs with "a thrill" — crying for them, and 



SALVAGE 



365 



offering any price — so long will there be found grace- 
less and greedy persons ready to exploit their need. 
In securing supplies an addict is one who has pre-- 
eminently the quality of keeping on against the odds 
and of ultimately winning out. 

In dealing with the traffic, all half measures must 
be eliminated, No quarter can be given to any par- 
ticipants whatsoever. 

Our Governments are unable to stay, under present 
conditions and present laws, the ocean of opium and 
other drugs with which we have become inundated and 
frankly acknowledge the fact. Anyone who studies 
the subject must also acknowledge the prodigious 
difficulties which the Governments have to encounter 
in dealing with the illicit trade, or what is known as 
"the underground traffic," and themselves to cast 
about for an idea which may lead to a solution of 
the difficulty. It is a subject upon which all of us 
should strop our brains with a desire to assist our 
representatives in parliament. 

Having declared this, permit us to say that if the 
Government cannot stay materially the inrush of in- 
hibited drugs; cannot stay the operations of the Rings,* 
and only to a small degree those of the pedlars it must, 
therefore, lay strong hands upon the traffic in the 
courts when it appears in the person of the consumer. 

What actually happens is the immediate granting of 
bail to the consumer, thereby giving him time to warn 
the pedlar. Or if bail be unprocurable, the officers of 
the law feed the consumer with narcotics in order 
that he may keep his poise, or if you prefer the word, 
his "nerve." 



366 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



We have already told what occurs when he is con- 
victed, and have nothing to add concerning the fu- 
tility of our present methods. These statements are 
more especially applicable to conditions in Canada, 
the United States being vastly more practical in 
their treatment of addicts. 

in. 

Dr. James C. Hamilton, Commissioner of Correc- 
tion, New York City, approached this subject from a 
different angle, but quite effectively, when he said, 
"Conserving human life is one of the most important 
duties of the Government. As all agencies of society 
wage constant warfare against the murderer, the 
gambler, and the thief, so likewise should they stamp 
put drug addiction which is playing such havoc with 
the physical, intellectual and moral welfare of the 
youth of our land , . . Drug addicts should be handled 
with more firmness and less sentimentality. They 
have, in most instances, wilfully formed the habit and, 
while continuing in it, are irresponsible and a positive 
menace." 

Because of the danger of creating habituation, the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American 
Medical Association stated that heroin or morphine 
should not be used for symptoms which may be re- 
lieved by codein, or less actively habit-forming drugs. 

An attempt was made recently in Chicago to enforce 
the regulations concerning the prescribing of these 
drugs when, in one week, thirty-five doctors and drug- 
gists were arraigned for their illicit sale. 



SALVAGE 



367 



In a word we have a duty to the addicts who come 
to the police court. We do not always fulfil the ob- 
ligation by imprisoning them, although this is of pri- 
mary and vital importance. 

Neither do we fufil our obligation by dismissing 
their case with the customary threat, "It will be a bad 
day for you if ever you come back." 

Contrariwise, provisions must be made for the 
placing of addicts in whatever institution is indicated 
by their particular case. This may be a jail, a hospital, 
a prison farm, or an asylum, as advised by the physi- 
cian or psychopath. 

The police court, so far as addicts are concerned, 
should be a casualty clearing station, looking to 
the permanent cure of the addict — whether he be 
criminal, diseased, or both — and not as a pay station 
where t he is taxed to enrich the rate-payers. But 
maybe, the same applies to all kinds of crime. Maybe 
it does ! 

In some States of the American Union, the law 
provides that if a complaint is made to a magistrate 
that any person is a drug addict, or upon the voluntary 
application the magistrate if satisfied of the truth 
thereof, may commit him to a state, county or city 
hospital, or institution licensed under the state lunacy 
commission, or any correctional or charitable in- 
stitution, or private hospital, or sanitorium having an 
unrevoked certificate of authority from -the Depart- 
ment of Health, for the treatment of inebriety. 

The particulars governing such commitments may be 
found in the Public Health Manual of the State De- 
partment of Health, Albany, N.Y. 



368 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Dr. Thomas S. Blain writing of this matter in 
The Survey, expresses himself as opposed to voluntary 
commitment and declares that it has been a failure 
as regards a very large proportion of the cases. He 
says, "The method whereby patients are bargained 
with is wrong in principle, and it is only too easy to 
make of a public institution a mere repair shop run 
on sentimental lines." 

Discussing the matter further, he says that every 
State should enact a habit law under which persons 
addicted to the use of habit forming drugs may be 
committed for a period not exceeding one year, by 
the courts, to a proper hospital or asylum, and pro- 
viding for the necessary petitions, warrants, hearings, 
affidavits, reviews under writs of habeas corpus, and 
provision for the payment by the inebriate himself, 
his estate or relatives, or in the event of poverty by 
warrant on the commissioners of the county in which 
the inebriate resides. Such an act should utilize ex- 
isting institutions. 

This procedure would be very similar to that al- J 
ready adopted in some of our Canadian Provinces for 
the commitment of criminals suffering from venereal J 
disease. 

The Boylan Law of the State of New York provides 
that at any stage of a criminal proceeding, a judge or J 
magistrate may commit a criminal, in order to afford 
an opportunity for treatment, after which he may be J 
returned to the court for trial. 



SALVAGE 



369 



IV. 

But after all, our difficulties are not so much in the 
lack of adequate narcotic laws, as in their want of 
enforcement. 

Laws are enforced, through public sentiment, by 
honest officials, and through impartial administration. 
All three are requisite to the end. 

It is the habit of the public to lay the blame for 
non-enforcement on officials, but especially on counsel 
for the defence. 

It is an attitude of mind which may easily be ac- 
quired, especially in the case of the latter. It is our 
habit to speak of counsel for the defence as "a crimi- 
nal lawyer," whereas he is only a lawyer for the crimi- 
nal. So far as we can see, his chief culpability lies in 
his desire to persuade the criminal that he is earning 
his fee, by protesting, cross-questioning, repeating, de- 
nying, forbidding, objecting and quoting so that he not 
only "takes time, but trespasses upon eternity." 

Some day, an irate Judge is going to kill a lawyer 
for this, at least, it is so anticipated. 

Indeed, it may be stated without fear of error that 
the lack of public sentiment is the chief reason for 
the halting gait of the law on its way to enforcement, 
or why, like Mephibosheth of old, it is lame on both 
its feet. 

Mr. F. W. Cowan, Chief of the Narcotic Division 
of the Health Department at Ottawa, said in a recent 
letter, "It is of the utmost importance that the people 
themselves, give to the various authorities charged 
with the enforcement of our Opium and Drug Laws, 



370 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



their moral backing and support at all times, far un- 
less public opinion is aroused to the necessity of deal- 
ing sternly with this class of criminals, and stamping 
out the drug traffic, and unless the people of every 
municipality are prepared to demand strict enforce- 
ment of these laws, and see to it that the police officers 
who are charged with this difficult task are backed up 
at all times, we cannot hope to stamp out this very 
great evil in Canada, no matter how ready or willing 
the police are to accomplish these ends." 

Dr. Prentice goes further and states without any 
mincing of words that there is a wide-spread and well- 
organized conspiracy in the United States to defeat 
the purpose of the Drug Acts and to circumvent their 
requirements. Wolfish persons who are exploiting 
the victims of opiates seek to continue their profitable 
traffic by maintaining addiction. 

Folk can be found in Canada with similar aims in 
respect to the inebriate and addict. These are the 
filmy-minded persons who declare the laws to be a 
joke, showing the development of a marvellous sense 
of humor which enables them to laugh at the 
Constitution. 

This, however, is no reflection upon the laws. The 
most simple and explicit laws ever given to the world 
were the Ten Commandments but, as already noted, 
even Moses Was unable to ensure their strict en- 
forcement. 

The public must see to it that the judge and police 
are supplied with that moral backing which will pre- 
vent their being intimidated by the outlawed drug 



SALVAGE 



371 



interests, or by the profiteering criminality known 
variously as the Ring, the pedlar, or the bootlegger. 
This support should not be of an erratic nature — the 
spasmodic outburst of a campaign — but one which 
is strong and ever-during. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



HEALING, 

When the days were torment and the nights 

were clouded terror 
When the Powers of Darkness had dominion on 

our soul 
.... These put out, their hands to us, and 

healed us, and made us whole, 

— Rudyard Kipling, 

DR. Harrington Sainsbury, of London, who has 
written a volume on the drug-habit from the 
psycho-therapeutic standpoint states that when owing 
to an insufficient will-power on the part of the patient, 
the personal appeal has failed, the only alternative is 
treatment in an asylum or sanitorium. 

In discussing the matter he says, "The value of a 
sanitorium is great; the unaccustomed surroundings, 
the routine and regulated life, the officialism, above 
all, the personality of the superintendent in which 
everything centres — all these elements sum themselves 
up and yield a therapeutic momentum which we shall 
look for in vain outside the institution." 

These institutions must not be confused with the ' 
narcotic clinics which were established in some of the 
American cities arid found to be a failure for reasons 
set forth elsewhere in this volume. 

The experiment may have been considered both , 
vexatious and costly but, at the same time, it was a 
necessary one if we were to discern the. better way. 

372 



HEALING 



373 



What the State of New York did in this behalf is of 
immense benefit, not only to the whole Republic, but 
to the world. Experiments in institutional care will 
still have to be, made but, nevertheless, we have gained 
much knowledge that is sound and satisfactory. 

We have learned, concerning the institution for the 
healing of addicts — whether it be for their cure, fol- 
low-up treatment, or for both — that it must be con- 
ducted under the most rigid regulations, and that in 
dealing with addiction, this department of the Govern- 
ment, or municipality, should be vested with plenary 
police powers. 

II. 

Private sanitoria must, perforce, please their patrons 
to retain their custom and to please a drug addict 
means that you cannot cure him. It also means that 
discipline may not be enforced either because of the 
patient's abnormality, or by reason of the interference 
of his well-meaning but unduly sympathetic relatives. 
Although these have utterly failed in restraining the 
patient at home, they are often vastly suspicious of 
the physician, nurse, or other official who is succeeding 
at the institution. 

Those officials who deal effectively with vices are 
nearly always stigmatized as "hard" but, unfortun- 
ately, no defence may be advanced in that vice or 
disease cannot be disassociated from the persons in 
whom these find lodgment. Marcus Aurelius must 
have had this in mind when he said that the limbs were 
merely glued to the soul. 

It is claimed that in ancient times evils, or devils, 



374 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



were cast out by thaumaturgy, thus saving the worker 
from loss of prestige through "hardness" but, ap- 
parently, this art has become a lost one, so that the 
best we can do in modern days is to discipline the 
person with what gentleness we may. This can only 
be done successfully as we rid from our minds every 
vestige of thought which has to do with punishment. 

This becomes difficult to the official because of the 
very accusations preferred by the relatives, or by a 
public which is not fully cognizant of the facts. Be- 
sides, really strong officials have not time to stop and 
explain. 

Moses must have been this kind of an official for, 
while being a supreme law-maker and law-enforcer,, 
his chronicler tells how he "wist not that his face 
shone." To some of us, this is not only a very vital 
fact, but the most beautiful remark that has come 
down the ages. 

But apart from these considerations, it has been 
found that many addicts "sign up" and go to a private 
hospital to hide away from the police and, incidentally, 
get all the narcotics they desire. In a word, "the cure" 
is only so much camouflage. 

The physicians in charge of the hospitals seldom 1 
speak out concerning this, in which respect they may | 
be said to suffer from that same disease of the throat 
which Plutarch ascribed to Demosthenes when bribed 
not to speak against Harpalus — that is to say, from 
"silver quinsy." 

Yes, institutions for the cure of drug addiction | 
should be under the auspices of the Government, or 



HEALING 



37S 



municipality, with the constant attendance of physi- 
cians who are skilled in the cure of drug addiciton, and 
its psychiatry. 

These physicians should be well paid and, like all 
other officers attached to the institution, absolutely 
above suspicion. No penalty that is provided under 
the Drug Act should be too severe for an attendant 
purveying drugs to patients. 

Before leaving this phase of the subject it might 
be well to point out also that, at a Government in- 
stitution, the physicians might remove the cause if 
the trouble were an organic one. One can hardly 
expect a permanent cure in the case of an addict who 
is ill from a painful disease, and without funds to 
pay for an operation. 

It is reported from New York that, among male 
patients, there is a large incidence of hernia which 
frequently interferes with their performing physical 
labor, and which causes them distress from the use of 
different mechanical appliances. These are operated 
on under local anaesthesia without the disagreeable 
after effects of ether. 

III. 

If possible this institution should be on an island 
in order to prevent patients leaving, or drugs being 
brought them. But even when marooned on an island 
it would almost seem as if narcotics came to the 
patients by wireless. 

The institution should be clean, orderly and cheer- 
ful, without suggestion of penal incarceration — a 



376 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



place that is at once a sanitorium, a farm, and an 
actual home. 

In a letter received from Dr. C. F. Neelands, the 
Superintendent of the Reformatory at Guelph, 
Ontario, he states the best cure to consist in work and 
play in the open air, regular hours, and good sub- 
stantial food. He gives it as his opinion that not less 
than six months should be taken to the cure of those 
left derelict by drugs, but that a year is better. After 
this period, the amount of will-power of the addict 
determines his future. 

It may be noted here that all drug addicts have a 
marked aversion to fresh air, so that this treatment 
presents more difficulties than would appear on the 
surface to the uninitiated citizen. 

IV. 

Dr. Sainsbury who has given much study to the 
subject of institutional treatment writes, "Our eyes are 
being opened to the great moral and physical value 
of purposeful occupation — the sanitaria for the treat- 
ment of consumptives being in point. Cannot this 
same beneficial agent, work, be utilized more in the 
sanitoria for inebriates of all kinds,' displacing the" 
eternal round of amusement which becomes so weari- 
some." ' 

Because of our success in the United States and 
Canada with occupational therapy in the case of shell- 
shocked soldiers, there is no occasion for a discussion 
of this matter. Wherever indicated, occupational 
work should be an adjunct to the hospital treatment 



HEALING 



377 



It should also go far towards a maintenance of the 
institution itself. 

Dr. Sainsbury also urges that more attention be 
paid to the treatment of addicts by psychic suggestion 
in conjunction with other medication. "Suggestion," 
he says, "can blunt the force of desire, by so pre- 
judicing the mind against it, that allurements lose 
appreciably . . . Assistance of this kind is surely 
legitimate; and in fact do we not daily make use of 
such, both in the education of the child and in the 
re-establishment of the health of the sick ... To 
help another to help himself is good practical morality 
the world over, and sound spiritual economics." 

V. 

Dr. James Hamilton, in the New York Medical 
Journal has written an excellent article— since re- 
printed in pamphlet form— concerning the classifi- 
cation of criminals, and pointing out that it is a 
serious error in institutional care, to accept indis- 
criminately the feeble-minded, criminal and tubercular 
with the man whose only weakness is addiction. 

The latter becomes acquainted with a fellowship of 
rascals who, after release, are almost certain to tempt 
him with narcotics, especially if he have any funds' 
at his disposal. 

Dr. Hamilton, who had charge of 1,556 addicts 
at the Municipal Farm at Ricker's Island, New York, 
has declared that "while the addict may be cured of 
his craving of the drug, his association with drug users 
after taking the cure, leads almost invariably to his 



378 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



renewing the habit. There is no prophylaxis that 
will be of any avail until the manufacture and impor- 
tation of drugs is closely supervised." 

In this connection, it is urged by some authorities 
that, after being released on parole for a period of 
two years, the erstwhile addict should report period- 
ically and on these occasions be retained from twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours for observation. One of 
the chief detectives working in Ohio, urges that if 
addicts are caught using drugs after being cured, they 
should be indicted instead of being tried summarily, 
and sentenced to not less than two years in prison. 



VI. 

Dr. Hamilton's statement concerning the renewal 
of the habit after the cure undoubtedly leads us to 
ask the question "Then why cure any of them? The 1 
drug kills them in a few years anyway, so why not 
let them die as soon as possible ?" 

Even if we are tempted to adopt so pagan and cal- 
loused an attitude towards the youth of our country, 
we would have to treat them institutionally, 

■ (I) For the safety of the community. 

(2) For the prevention of crime. 

(3) To save the millions of dollars spent in the pur- 
chase of drugs. 

(4) Because of the prodigious loss in the constant ; 
unemployment of two or more millions of 
persons. 



HEALING 



379 



( 5 ) In order to impress upon the Governments who 

pay the bills the necessity of eradicating the 

traffic at its source, thus obviating the necessity 

for institutions. 

In spite of the fact that the majority of persons 

relapse, we must still cure them. There is only one 

thing to do on all occasions, and that is the right 

thing. Yes! Yes! we must still continue to be good 

Samaritans and to pour oil into the wounds of those 

who have fallen among thieves but, at the same time, 

it would be the highest kind of wisdom as well as 

an excellent economy, if we would set ourselves with 

seriousness to the task of exterminating those robbers 

who are known to infest the trails. 

It was Arthur Wood who said it was a good thing 
to arrest criminals, just as it was good to swat flies. 
"We shall never go far towards ridding the com- 
munity of criminals," he says "until we get at the 
breeding places. We must drain the swamps of 
crime as they drained the swamps in Cuba to get rid 
of the yellow fever mosquitoes." 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

FORECAST OF VICTORY. 

The best is yet to be. 

— Robert Browning. , 

Such refraction of events 

As often rises ere they rise. 

— Tennyson. 

WRITING recently in the Boston American, 
Abraham C. Webber said, "Moderation in the ! 
use of drugs is impossible. Once the habit is estab- 
lished the desire becomes insatiable . . . The breaking ' 
of the habit of the use of drugs is one of the most 1 
serious problems that humanity has had to deal with." 

Recognizing this fact, regulations were issued last 
year at Washington for the enforcement of the Har- 
rison Narcotic Law providing that no narcotic drugs 
could be placed in an addict's possession, nor was the' 
treatment to extend over thirty days for a patient not 
confined in a proper hospital. • ; 

While this is. a move in the right direction, it prob- | 
ably but means that the patient will have to change 4 
his physician every thirty days or, as an alternative,' 
change his name. The cells of an addict's brain may | 
be blurred, and his wit disorganized, until it comes to; 1 
devices for evading the law, when his shrewdness and , 
calculated audacity are nothing short of inspirations. '■] 

The Washington regulations permit a physician tol 
prescribe or dispense narcotics for the relief of acute § 

380 



FORECAST OF VICTORY 



381 



pain, without reference to the question of drug ad- 
diction. 

Narcotics may be prescribed for treatment of in- 
curable diseases provided, 

(1) That the patients are personally attended by 
the physician. 

(2) That he regulates the dosage. 

(3) That he prescribe no quantity greater 1 than 
that ordinarily recommended by members of 
his profession to be sufficient for proper treat- 
ment in a given case. 

Mere drug addiction is not considered as an incur- 
able case, but those suffering from infirmity or old 
age, who are confirmed addicts of years standing and 
who, in the opinion of the physician, require a mini- 
mum amount of narcotics to sustain life, may be con- 
sidered in the incurable class. 

Ordinary addicts must be treated in accordance with 
the usual experience of the medical profession, the 
drug not to be placed in the addict's possession. 

D, Thompson, Chief-Constable of Windsor, On- 
tario, who has thought to point out his opinion, gives 
it as that "the Government should give authority to 
one reliable physician in a city or town, making him 
responsible for the handling and distributing of all 
narcotics necessary for medicinal purposes within a 
certain area. In larger cities, it would probably re- 
quire to be handled by more than one physician, but 
I believe that taking the selling of narcotics away from 
druggists, we would eliminate the temptation which 
now exists to use this method of making money." 



382 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



III 



Another Chief-Constable says, "If physicians and 
druggists are allowed to control narcotics, the police 
are going to be powerless. Their breaches of the 
Liquor Act show that neither can be trusted." There! 
there! someone was bound to say it. Nevertheless, 
we stand to it that, as a whole, the. words once ad* 
dressed to Pasteur with touching simplicity are appli- 
cable to the members of the medical profession, "You 
have been very great, and very good ; you have given 
a beautiful example." 

Now whatever new regulations may be issued in 
Canada, the so-called ambulatory treatment which 
places habit-forming drugs in the hands of a person 
for self -administration should be declared unlawful, 
in that this treatment extends the abuse of narcotics 
and causes an increase in crime. It also makes for 
the distribution of the drug of addiction to other 
persons. 

II. 

The medical, pharmaceutical, dental, and veterin- 
arian associations, in all parts of the continent, could 
do excellent service if, on their own initiative, they 
secured the evidence to prosecute those of their mem^ 
bers who violate the federal, provincial or state nar- 
cotic enactments. Some associations are already per- 
forming this service although, up to the present, none 
can be charged as overly precipitate in action. There 
is no reason why these associations should not protect 
their own and the people's rights by prosecuting those 
renegade members of their profession— a minority, 



FORECAST OF VICTORY 383 

to be sure — who engage in so nefarious and disre- 
putable a trade as poison vending. 

Physicians could also help by drawing the attention 
of the public to the slum conditions which enable the 
Oriental pedlar to ply his business in comparative 
safety. Entering these places in his daily practice, 
the physician can speak with more authority than 
anyone else. It is a thousand pities they are so gener- 
ally inarticulate on the subject. The unsanitary con- 
ditions prevailing should alone be sufficient cause for 
their taking the lead for better housing, with more 
sunlight and fresh air. 

Physicians could also do much to prevent the ac- 
quiring of the drug habit by agitating for the examina- 
tion of children in schools, by a specialist, whereby 
psychopathic tendencies could be detected and, if pos- 
sible, corrected. 

The system of medical inspection of schools being 
already established, this work would only be an ad- 
junct thereto. 

Although they have grown in stature, many chil- 
dren in the schools are hardly more developed mentally 
than those 120,000 persons for whom Jehovah showed 
special care,' in that they knew not their right hand 
from their left. 

III. 
Physicians who have charge of institutions should 
see to it that narcotics are kept under lock and key, 
and that the quantities dispensed in doses be accounted 
for like cash in a bank. 

Everyone who has to do with drug users knows that 
13 



384 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



narcotics are frequently stolen from the motor cars 
of physicians and from the hospitals by servants and 
others. The other day in Edmonton, a girl of sixteen 
who worked as a domestic in one of the hospitals 
was reported to be using cocaine while out in the 
evenings, and that she claimed to have got her supply 
at the institution. She was brought in for examina- 
tion but no drugs were found upon* her. Three days .;; 
later, she was again brought in when it was found that, 
having emptied the tooth paste from a tube, she had ' 
unfolded it at the bottom and inserted the drug. As 
one looked at her slight frame and flowerlike face, 
it was to recall the lines of Arthur Stringer, , 

"What is this madness, girl? 
What is your name? 
And why should one so young fight bitterly 
To go to such a death t . ' . . . 

. Why, child, look up at me! You are too young 
i To know what sorrow is ! These eyes are still 
Too soft to peer into the awful Night ^ 
That never answers us and never ends. 

But it was legislation we were speaking about when 
led aside to speak of how physicians might help with 
the safe-guarding of inhibited drugs, so let us return 

to our subject! im n 

Under Regulations 35 of the United States, 1919, 
it has been provided that, "Any unused narcotic drug 
left by a practitioner upon discharge of a nurse, must 
be returned to the practitioner who will account for 
the drugs on his records," 

It goes without saying that a similar regulation 
should be issued in Canada, and that it be strictly 
enforced. A patient who has been receiving opiates, 



FORECAST OF VICTORY 



385 



should be freed from the temptation of using them 
further, or the nurse of making other disposal. 

IV. 

In Canada, all persons who are arrested for traffick- 
ing in narcotics, whether convicted or not, in any city 
or town, should have their photograph, and finger 
prints taken by the police, and forwarded to a central 
bureau, preferably at Ottawa, where these could be 
copied and sent broadcast to all police officers through- 
out the Dominion. 

In this way the police could be on the lookout for 
these traffickers and, as soon as they arrive in a city 
or town, if occasion warranted, apprehend them. 

At the present time when a person is convicted of 
an offence against the Opium and Drugs Act and pays 
his fine, or serves a term in jail, he is released, and as 
a rule, leaves for some other locality to again, ply his 
illegal trade, and the authorities of the city to which 
he goes have no information concerning him. He 
may, therefore, be able ,to operate for months or years 
before eventually being caught. 

For some time, the United States authorities have 
been desiring to co-operate with the Canadian author- 
ities in this respect, but we are powerless to act until 
the Identification Act be amended to provide for the 
taking of the photographs. This would not seem to 
be a serious undertaking but, up to the present, nothing 
has been accomplished. 

Chris. H. Newton, the Chief-Constable at Winni- 
peg, has been active in this behalf and last year re- 



386 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



quested the Department of Justice at Ottawa for an 
amendment of this Act whereby a clause might be 
included giving the necessary authority to the police. 

In a letter written about that time he says, "I- was 
recently approached by Dr. Carlton Simon, Special 
Deputy Police Commissioner for the City of New 
York, with a view to exchanging photographs and 
descriptions in this connection, he in turn being willing 
to supply us with much data. On account of not being 
able to obtain this information, I was compelled to 
decline his request." 

Anyone who lives in Western Canada and knows 
the proximity of Winnipeg to the American border, 
will realize how Chief Newton is seriously handi- 
capped in not having records of the addicts who take 
refuge in his city. This is a state of affairs which 
should be rectified without any delay whatsoever. 

V. 

In the United States, it has been found that the 
majority of addicts have criminal histories, so that' 
this system not only enables the authorities to deal 
with the drug-masters but also with those of the users 
who are vicious. 

Dr. Hamilton recommends that, in the case of ad- 
dicts, four cards be made ; one to be kept by the addict, 
one by the institution treating him, one by the Health 
Department and one by the Police Department. 

In order to prevent fraud and misrepresentation 
the addict should carry his card, and communications 
made to physicians should not be privileged. Physi- 



FORECAST OF VICTORY 



387 



cians should be required by law to report all cases 
to the Provincial or State Department of Health whose 
officers should have the power to inspect any place 
where addicts are treated, and to issue process for 
investigations incidental to the enforcement of law, 
including the examination of witnesses, production 
of books, etc. 

With a central bureau at Ottawa, it would be pos- 
sible to telegraph the formula of the finger prints 
from any part of the Dominion, and to know almost 
immediately the history of the pedlar or addict who 
has been arrested. It may be mentioned here that 
there is already a Central Identification bureau, at 
Ottawa, but the records do not include the cases here 
mentioned. 

It might be urged by addicts who have acquired the 
habit through illness, or others who have drifted Into 
the thrall of the drug without realizing its serious 
nature, that the recording of their finger prints would 
be derogatory and, maybe, inimical. 

If a person wishes to obviate this necessity he has 
only to refrain from using narcotics. If he refuses 
to exercise his will-power to this extent, the safety 
of the public is the first consideration. 

But, in reality, this finger photography has become 
so common, that it no longer carries the stigma which 
at first attached. In some banks in the United States, 
the depositor's identification card bears his finger- 
print as a complete protection against forgery. The 
process of taking his print from the cheque takes less 
than thirty seconds. This is not a new idea, for the 



388 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Chinese, two centuries before the Christian era used 
the thumb-print for their signature on all legaland 
business documents. It is also used in India. 

Finger prints are made in the United States of every 
soldier and sailor in the Army and Navy, and these 
prints are coming to be considered as valuable for 
protection as for detection. 

After the transport Tuscania was sunk off the Irish 
Coast, with no means of identification at hand, the J 
Government ordered that every fighter carry his badge 
around his neck, this badge bearing a replica of his 
thumb print. On the reverse side was the name and 
company of the wearer. If killed, his badge was trans- \ 
mitted to Washington, thus establishing his identity, j 
beyond question. 

Because of the large amounts of money paid an- 
nually by insurance companies for persons who are g 
actually not dead, the advisability of taking the finger 
prints of policy holders is being discussed. Others are 
advocating that new-born babies in hospitals have 
photographs of their foot prints at birth, and on 
leaving tie institution, to prevent the possibility of a 
mother getting a child which is nqt her own. Such 
an error was made this year in Canada, and was not 
rectified until five months later. 

If the addict still requires assurance as to the pro- 
priety of the photograph, we might point out that 
Mrs. John King Van Rensselaer of New York has 
organized a National Scientific Registration Society 
"for the protection of life, and property," with Mr, 
Bruce Falconer as its first President, so that like as 



FORECAST OF VICTORY 



389 



not, we shall catch the idea in Canada, and presently 
be making a fad of dactyloscopy even as we have of 
palmistry. 



CHAPTER XXX. 



THE CONTEST. 

I therefore go and join head, heart and hand, v 

Active and firm, to fight the bloodless fight 
Of science, freedom, and the truth* 

—S. T. Coleridge. 

RECENTLY, a man was taken by the police on 
the Pacific Coast with a quantity of narcotics 
and drug instruments in his possession. According to 
their information, instead of using "runners," he was 
doing business by a regular mail distributing system 
with Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg, Des Moines, 
Spokane, Seattle, Portland, Butte, and a number of 
other towns through the States of Washington, Idaho, 
and Oregon. His method was simply to insert the 
drug in an envelope and mail it to the addict without 
any invoice or other paper whereby its source might 
be traced. 

The police declare this system has become firmly 
established by a large Ring of drug-masters operating . 
on both sides of the border line. 

Systems of this kind demonstrate the advisability of. 
our having a special drug squad in every city — men 
who are observers with special capacity for action. 
This force need not be a large one— probably two or 
three men — for they would always be able to call other 
detectives to their assistance, but the work of this 
force should relate solely to the drug traffic. Ordinary 

390 



THE CONTEST 



391 



police officers without training, cannot possibly cope 
with the cunningly devised methods of the pedlar and 
addict. 

The work of trailing the pedlar is often a long and 
expensive one, and usually means the establishing of 
contact with them in a social way. The drug squad 
must almost live in the underworld, or at least be in 
hourly contact with the denizens theredf in order to 
secure convictions. 

Presently, the detective begins to connect different 
persons with certain routes, taxi-stands, drug stores 
and physicians. He will get to know what railway 
porters are "in the know/' and how they make their 
"transfer.'"" He will hear when big shipments of illicit 
drugs are expected and who is manipulating them. He 
will know an addict at first glance, as well as being able 
to identify narcotics— matters concerning which the 
average policeman or detective is an entire novice. 

The members of a drug squad will also know how 
to search a building, or to direct the search should 
occasion warrant, although if the detective who has 
been living in the underworld comes out from cover 
even once, he is apt to get "frozen" in so complete a 
manner that he never thaws out. Sometimes they call 
this "croaking" him, but the effect is the same — an in- 
quest and an open verdict. It seems to be eminently 
true what Sir. W. S. Gilbert wrote about the matter. 

"When constabulary duty's to be done, 
A policeman's lot is not a happy one." 

In searching an opium den in Alberta, the detec- . 



392 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



tives, all skilled men, were unable to locate the cache 
which was known to be there, although they worked 
for hours. Finally, unruffled and undismayed, they 
proceeded to examine the place inch by inch. 

After sweeping the floor, they scrutinized every 
board, till at last they discovered one secured to place 
by screws instead of nails. These screws were sunken 
in the boards, and the spaces filled with dirt, thus 
presenting a level surface. 

A turn-screw was secured and, thrilled to the core; 
of their hearts, the searchers lifted the board. But| 
hold awhile— gently, Sirs, gently — who could have'j 
believed such a thing possible? While the searchers? 
worked, other Chinamen, in the room below, had re-j 
moved the screws from the corresponding board in? 
the ceiling beneath and had taken away the opium. I 

To put ordinary policemen or even ordinary de- ; 
tectives, to work on tasks like these is only a waste| 
of time and money, as well as tending to abate their] 
ambitions, no matter how high. 

Perhaps, the readers who have come thus far with! 
me, will also deduce that this is not a work which can 1 
be undertaken to any marked extent by philanthro-j 
pists. It is true these may supply the funds but, in| 
the end, the task has to be done by men with some f 
little aptitude and training. 

We need men, too, with social address for certain; 
phases of this work particularly as it relates to the 
Ring. 

It has been said that provided he has squint eyes 
and a dark complexion, almost anybody feels himself 



THE CONTEST 



393 



qualified to unravel the threads of crime, and the 
idea is very commonly held. 

In our experience, we have deduced that the major- 
ity of police detectives — with a few notable exceptions 
— have not the polished address which would enable 
them to mingle freely with criminals in what is known 
as "social life." 

While the powers of deduction are a great asset 
in spotting and trailing these special criminals, these 
are not more important than patience, fearlessness, 
honesty, and the ability to close one's mouth and open 
one's eyes. There are good openings for educated men 
with such qualifications, even if the men are lonely 
for awhile. 

II. 

Because Governments have failed to grasp the 
seriousness of the situation, the sums allotted to deal- 
ing with the drug traffic have been entirely inadequate 
—indeed, pitifully so. 

In Canada, no figures have been compiled on the 
cost of drug addiction, except at Vancouver, where 
they have computed that the amounts spent in their 
city is more than the combined annual receipts of 
their three largest departmental stores. 

A reporter on the Vancouver World has said also, 
"Our bill for the upkeep of addicts at the Okalla Jail 
last year was $23,000. In December alone it was 
$2,828. 

In the face of these fact, it seems the commonest 
kind of sense for the Canadian Government to provide 
adequately for the machinery to eliminate the traffic, 



394 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Assuredly, this is a place wherein it is amply demon- 
strated that "There is that scattereth and yet in- | 
creaseth." 

III. 

Speaking of the Government expenditure of the § 
United States for the fiscal year ending January 30th, -|J 
1920, Edward Bennett Rosa, Chief of the Bureau of J 
Standards, has shown that 92.8% of the entire ap- | 
propriations of the year were devoted to past, present | 
and future war. 

His statement startled the American public, even 'jj 
stunned them. That only 7.2% of all the monies, | 
appropriated were used for the cause of civilization;! 
was a terrible indictment against America. 

After this statement, the secretaries of the Treasury ■ 
of the United States applied themselves to work on 1 
their adding machines and showed that for the 131; 
years of its existence, the amount spent on war, or J 
things relating to or resulting from war, averaged|j 
78.5% of the yearly appropriations. 

Previously, reports had always been totalled hori- 
zontally to show the annual cost of Government. They 
had never been totalled vertically to get a comparison 1 
between the items of expenditure. 

■ IV. . . . ' ■ 

. Of the amount spent On the cause of civilization— 
that is to say the 7.2'%'-— the sum of $750,000 was j 
appropriated for the enforcement of the Harrison 'Jj 
Narcotic Law, which, after all, is a Revenue Act, so ,1 
that this sum was actually appropriated to ensure the | 
collection of dues. 



THE CONTEST 



395 



When one turns to look at the cost of the addicts 
to the United States, apart from the loss in wages, or 
of the drugs consumed, the sums are amazing. The 
figures we quote are those given by Dr. Erwin C. 
Ruth, head of the International Revenue Department 
of Boston who says, "Conservative estimates place 
the value of property lost and destroyed by a single 
addict in a year at $2,500. The aggregate would be 
five billion dollars on this basis* 

The average drug slave spends $25.00 a year for 
hypodermic equipment alone, with two million persons 
using dope, t]ie yearly cost of hypodermic instruments 
would be fifty million dollars. 

"It is very difficult," he says further, "to obtain 
public figures on the cost of taking care of drug ad- 
dicts who land in jail as a result of crime. A guess 
would be $20.00 a piece, or ten million dollars for 
the total number. Fully 80 per cent, of the profes- 
sional criminals are drug addicts." 

It seems a pity that Governments must so frequently 
be appealed to from the monetary standpoint where 
matters of health and morals are concerned, and it 
would appear that the ends which have not been com- 
passed by science or philanthropy must be won in the 
interests of business. 

It is hardly conceivable that the astounding waste 
which comes from drug addiction can be allowed to 
continue on this continent 

Viewing these matters from their human and ethical 
standpoints, the editor of the Victoria Times has 
summed them up admirably in the following sentences : 



396 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



"Until the nation as a whole shall make up its 
mind that the traffic must stop ; that those unfor- 
tunate victims who have fallen prey to the wiles 
of the stronger willed shall be cared for and pro- 
tected; that the scale of punishment be such as 
will, literally terrify the nefarious trader, there 
will still be a large army willing to take the drug- 
selling route to considerable affluence. But once 
the people shall have taken hold of the thing with 
the right sort of fervor, hope of a successful cam- 
paign will be real/ , 



CHAPTER XXXL 



TO ADDICTS — APOLOGIA. 

THE trouble, with a book is the impossibility of 
saying secret things to certain people. Because 
of the purchaser, one may not pre-empt the pages, 
or bid that they be uncut. 

This is why I may not speak alone with those of 
you who have been variously spoken of as addicts, 
hop-heads, drug-takers, cocainists, and even as drug- 
fiends. 

For the most part, these words have had a hard 
sound, and they are hard. As I wrote concerning 
their signification, I knew they must sting and wound 
you. These were the only pages of my book that 
were painful in the writing, and I cannot close it with- 
out craving your pardon. 

Because I have known some of you in your hours of 
deepest depression and have looked into your lives 
with closest scrutiny, I cannot but suffer with you. 
To have seen your tears of shame and sorrow— yes, 
and to have seen your anger— means that, at least, 
I understand. 

. . ■ . Once, I travelled to the United States, two 
thousand miles or more, to be with a friend who was 
undergoing a major operation, which until shortly 
before, had been considered inoperable. Her suffer-* 

397 



398 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



ings were very great and, for days, my distress of 
mind was intense. 

Then, of a sudden, I was stricken with the same 
direful ailment and required the same operation. 

The surgeon, himself, came down to see me and 
explained the situation. 

"I will not undergo this pain of the knife," I said, 
"I shall die first" 

"You will die, alright," he replied, as he looked 
away. •;:.'.? 

Then, turning him around again, Charles Mayo said ; 
sharply, "Let go; you are not well enough to decide. | 
Let go; you must leave yourself in my hands." ' 

And this was what I did, and why I pass the words 
to you. ■ • 

Leave yourself in the hands of your physician, or « 
of some suitable institution for the immediate withrj 
drawal cure. Let go! Do it now. Do not hesitate; 
or attempt to argue the question. Salvation lies this. | 
way.- '.' 

Do not be fearful. Once, there were some men on 1 
a mountain and they "feared as they entered the| 
cloud," not knowing it to be the cloud of trans- • 
figuration. , 

At this, the end of f my theme, let me repeat to you; 
the words of Whitman as though they were my 
own : — . 

"From all the rest I single you out, having a message for you, 
Softly I lay my hand upon you .... 

I am more than nurse, more than parent or neighbor, ™ 

I absolve you from all except yourself." '*■ 



INDEX 



A 



Addams, Jane, 123, 127-128, 

187. 
Addicts, All classes, 31, 121, 
261; care of, 101-102, 250- 
259; 260-269; 366; 378; le- 
gitimate, 71-72, 81, 308-317, 
263, 318-330; slum, 57-59; 
passing habit, 151, 248; suf- 
ferings of, 226-227, 264-267, 
289-290, 293, 310-311; num- 
ber of, 118, ,124, 141-142, 242- 
243, 318; slang of, 131; In- 
crease of, 139; word of, 208; 
peddling, 280; message to, 
39^; what constitutes, 42-43. 

Addiction, cause of, 207; dis- 
ease, 86-87, 94-99; how ac- 
quired, 62-66, 151, 301, 315; 
maximum, 20; in Canada, 36, 
40-43, 51, S3, 55, 153; pre- 
natal effects Of, 54; symp- 
toms of, 36, 40-43, 51, 53, 55, 
153; . mixed, 49, 355-356; 
menace of, 56, 126, 142; in- 
curable, 381; and prohibi- 
tion, 281-286. 

Alcohol, 51, 56, 60-61, 67-68, 
134, 271, 277, 283, 286, 287, 
356. 

Ambulatory cure, 73-80, 241- 
242,260-269,382. 

American Medical Association, 
143. 

Arnold, Dr. Thomas, 287. 



Arabian Nights, 335; 
Asquith, Margot, 224. 
Assyrians, 150, 186, 303. 

Aurelius, ' Marcus, 373, 
Austrian s, 101, 118. 
Aya huasca, 356. 

B 

Bail, 192-193, 210, 365, 368. 
Beverley, Robert, 357 
Birthrate and addiction, 46-47. 
Birthwistle, Sergeant A., 172. 
Bishop, Dr. Ernest S., 79, 86, 

94. 
Braid, Dr. James, 322. 
Bruce, Mrs. William, 173-174. 
Boylan bill, 81, 273, 368. 
Blain, Dr. Thomas S., 250, 368. 
Bureau Internal Revenue, 115, 

116, 154, 167, 168. 
Blackweirs Island, 78, 310. 
Buddhist maxim, 364. 

C 
Children, 52-54, 65-66, 102, 123- 

135, 151-153, 209, 249, 252, 

253, 286. 
Chamberlain, Mr. Joseph P., 

182. 
Chloral-hydrate, 67, 2S7. 
Chloroform, 49. 
Coal tar, 19. 

Codein, 39, 116, 218, 242, 366. 
Cocoa, 356. 

Conservation of life, 27. 
Clarke, Dr. D. A., 23, 90. 



14 



399 



400 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



INDEX 



401 



Compensation Act, 91. 

Coleridge, 111. 

Collins, Judge Cornelius F., 
124, 248, 309, 359. 

Code, criminal, 57, 80-81, 196. 

Copeland, Dr. Royal S., 76, 
92, 124,248. 

China, and drugs, 26, 289 ; Em- 
press of, 27 ; and opium 
traffic, 231. 

Chinatown, 29, 168, 170, 202- 
205. 

Chinese, Anti-Opium Associa- 
tion, 174-175, 179-180; and 
banks, 194; deported, 197- 
198; Christianized, 178-179; 
as citizens, 178-181, 187- 
189; educated, 216; in Bri- 
tish Columbia,, 28-29, 179- 
181; and joss house, 95-97; 
and opium habit, 105-112, 
138, 148, 240, 242; as immi- 
grants, 205, 239; societies, 
176; secretive, 208; vendors, 
52,150,158-159,166,196,201; 
and white women, 209-218, 
233-239; vote, 175. 

Cocaine, adulterated, 215-216, 
259, 271, 276-277, 301 ; 'bhang 1 
of, 61; effects of, 19-20, 48- 

, 54, 63, 65-67, 86, 120, 127- 
130, 151, 218-219, 220-232, 243, 
294-356; how financed, 185- 
186; in Toronto, 168; im- 
ports, 220-221 ; addicts fo, 
242, 324-326; to children, 152, 
153; license for, 25;. and pa- 
tients, 270-271 ; revenue from 
116, 141, 215-216; through 
mails, 146 s 390; Mercks, 184; 



No. I Spanish, 184; smug- 
gled, 156, 215, 221, 275. ••'■■„, 

Crane, Frank, 144, 

Cowan, Mr. F. W., 150, 369. 

(irehan, Major, 188. 

Compensation Act, 91. 

Crime, 57-60, 86, 119, 139, 152- v: | 
153, 220, 230, 235, 262, 297- ; 
307, 312, 338, 395, 

Customs, Department of, 21, jg 
24, 36, 115, 147, 154, 201. 

D 

Dance halls, 70, 129, 166, 169, | 
229, 244, 277. 

Dawson, Mr. Owen C., 52, 

Dangerous Drug's Act, 2Q0,if 
201. 

Daley, John, 297. 

Dentists, 64, 140, 275, 382. 

De Quincey, 110, 121, 335. 

Doukhobors, 197. 

Dill, Dr. John Gordon, 63. 

Doane, Dr. Joseph C„ 283. 

Defence of Realm Act, 86| 
202, 204. 

Deportation of Aliens, 197-199| 
219,312. 

Dionin, 116, 218, 358. 

Digitalis, 218. 

"Dopey" Benny, 57. 

Drouin, Dr. J. A., 183. 

Drugs, addicted to, 16; effects if 
of, 16-20 ; centre for, 34 ;; | 
favor for certain, 20, 64, 242r 
244, 233-239; "cures" for^ 66j| 
73, 80, 241-242, 290, 314 ; con- ' 
trol system, 69; contraband,- 
82-83; in Canada, 23; in 
. country, 65; habit, 62-6S, 72; ■.; 



horses and, 62 ; monopoly by 
Government, 99; propaganda, 
143-144; profits from, 151, 
166, 194, 230; hiding, 312- 
313, 339-346; wastage from, 
18; wholesale firms for, 25. 

~ •' E 
Edison, Thomas A., 133. 
Ely, Rev. M. R., 126. 
Emerson, R, W., 109. 



Fines, 31, 81, 99-100, 138-139, 
142, 177, 181-182, 190, 194- 
199,278,349/ 

Fingerprints, 385-389. 

Ford, Mr. Henry, 345. 

Ford, Bert, 128. 

France, 118, 206, 282. 

Fuller, Thomas, 307. 

Fyfe, Mr. Hamilton, 333. 



Germans, prolific, 47, and 
Hague Conference, 101 ; and 
addiction, 118; shipments 
from, 138, 183-184, 206, 282. 

Gradual reduction cure, 73-80, 
314-317. 

Great Britain, 24, 119, 200-207, 
231, 248, 282. 

Greeks, 1,50, 186, 303. 

Gyro Club, 181. 

H 

Harrison Narcotic Act, 26, 
182-183, 250, 263, 273, 312, 
361, 380, 394. 



Harte, Bret, 30. 

Hasheesh or hemp, 231, 331. 

Harper, H. D., 314. 

Hansard, 23. 

Hague Convention, 100-101, 

231-232, 331.. 
Health Departments, 24, 53, 76, 

91, 98, 109, 115, 136, 150, 154, 

163, 208, 257, 261, 265, 268, 

269, 273, 283, 284, 308, 362- 

364. 
Heroin, 20, 55-61, 63, 120, 168, 

242, 359, 74, 75,252,253,261, 

273, 276, 298, 366. 
Hamilton, Dr. James A., 59, 

77, 120, 125, 207, 267, 289, 310, 

366 t 377, 386. 
Hinckley, Dr.* Livingston S., 

120. 
Hyoscine, 218, 266, 357-358. 
Hypodermic injections, 19, 39, 

43, 64, 128, 150, 210, 240- 

249, 263, 272, 395. 
Hospitals, 78, 97, 212, 247, 249, 

263, 283, 290, 309, 316, 366, 

372-379, 383. 
Holland, 118, 206. 
Henry, Q., 338. 
Huaca-cachu, 356. 
Hubbard, Elbert, 265. 



Immigration 'Act of Canada, 

198-199. 
Imports, of drugs, 23, 295. 
India, 186, 231, 288, 289, 293, 

332. 
Insanity, 19, 22, 56-58, 81, 122, 

198, 221, 225-235, 248, 309- 

310, 337. 



402 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Japan, 138, 174, 183, 185, 201. 
Jensen, Mr. A. C, 155. 
Jews, 196. 
Jimson weed, 356. 
Jones, Charles A., 332. 
Journalists, 239. 

K 

Kieb, Dr. Raymond F. S., 60. 
King, Hon. W. L. Mackenzie, 

27-28. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 1.10, 121, 211, 

361,372. 
Kiwanis Club, 139, 181, 284, 

297. 

L ' 

Laase,jDr. J. F., 54. 

Laudanum, 106-107, 242. 

Law, enforcement of, 163, 345- 

346, 364-371; poisons, 244; 

defiance of, 263, 264, 269; 

liquor, 273, 281, 287, 368, 370, 

374. 
Lawyers, 138, 150, 191, 193. 
Ludlow, Fitz-Hugh, 336. 

M 

Mackay, Charles, 290. 
Mack, Frank, 168. 
Mayo, Dr. Charles, 398. 
MacVean, Dr. Stuart, 290. 
McConnell, Dr. B. J., 48, $7, 

97. 
McEachern, Dr. Malcolm, 94. 
McLennan, Chief Constable, 

139. 
Magistrates, 22, 69-83, 133, 155, 



160-161, 163, 190-191, 195, 198, 
204, 230, 304, 339. 

Medicines, patent, 66, 73; nar- 
cotics as, 119, 220, 250-259,, 
269, 293, 309. 

Mulhal, Mrs. Sarah G., 76, 120, 
125, 314, 359. 

Muskett, Mr. Herbert, 85. : 

N ' 

Narcotic Drug Control League, , 

. 182. 

Navy, 125, 388. 

Negroes, 17, 36, 150, 186, 189,jj| 

193, 196, 198, 303, 359. 
Neelands, Dr. C. F., 376. 
Newton, Chris. H., 97, 196|| 

385, 386. 
Nurses, 64, 111-112, 212, 245| 

384. 
Nutt, Colonel, L. G., 120. 
Novocaine, 231. 

O 

Okalla Jail, 393. 

Opium, 287-296; debauchee^ 
29-30, 67, .210; and ammalSff 
254-256; in China, 155; denl 
144; derivatives of, 18, 3f| 
287; "ghosts," 16, 105; Honf 
Kong, 158 ; implements o||| 
32, 39-47, 203; Jehol, 174 1| 
sale of, 190, 203; smokers oil 
15, 20, 29-30, 32-33, 43-46, 63| 
105-114, 164, 166, 190, 203 4 ff , 
211; smuggled, 156, 275, 292 J 
imports of, 24, 34-38; repor 
on, 28, 141. 

Opium and Drug's Act, 19, 25*1 



INDEX 



403 



26, 32, 40, 45, 73, 81, 100, 138, 
142, 171, 195, 196, 210, 218, 
231, 249, 275, 278, 292, 342, 
361-363, 385. 

Olpliuhqui, 356. 

Osier, Dr. William, 242. 



Pasteur, Dr., 382. 

Peddlers, of drugs, 26, 29, 52, 
81, 99-100, 109-110, 114, 125, 
130, 159-164, 190, 193, 196, 
198, 208, 214, 223, 225-226, 
230, 233-239, 248, 262, 275, 
289, 291, 311-12, 387; in pull- 
man cars, 35-37; Russian, 
159; Japanese, 174, 186; 
Chinese, 166-188 ; white, 91. 

Paregoric, 242, 286. 

Peru, 117. 

Persia, 24; Sa'di, the Persian, 
178; and hemp, 332. 

Peyotl, 356. 

Pharmacists, 21, 33, 53, 64, 68- 
77, 119, 127, 138, 140, 272, 
280, 293, 336, 366, 382; Jap- 
anese, 174; Calif ornian, 191- 
192. 

Physicians, 21, 26, 64, 69-83, 
138, 140-144, 208-218, 241-242, 
245, 250-259, 260-269, 270-272, 
277-279, 281, 292, 309, 366, 
375, 380, 382-385. 

Politics, 175-176, 191. 

Post offices, 146. 

Portugal, and addiction, 118, 
206. 

Police, 21, 29, 31-34, 45, 49, 
135, 139, 150, 15,5-163, 166, 



171-176, 200, 228-230, 237, 

245, 260, 263, 271, 291, 295, 

298, 321-322, 338, 348, 354, 

390. 
Prentice, Dr. Alfred C, 225, 

253,265, 311, 370. 
Prisons, 22, 53, 98-99, 198, 247, 

264-269, 291, 309, 316, 366. 
Prohibition, and drug habit, 21, 

60-61, 70, 115, 137, 140, 145, 

196, 281-286. 
Prostitution,, and drugs, 70, 86, 

111-112, 239, 254, 289, 298, 

300-301, 305-307, 309. 
Prescriptions, 70-75, 119, 214, 

216-218, 250-259, 272-280. 
Poppies, 39, 72, 108, 114, 155, 

288, 293, 312. 
Pollock, Dr. Horatio M., 56. 
Psychiatry, and drugs, 269, 318, 

320, 367. 

Q 
Quigley, Chief Joseph, 253. 

R 

Riots, anti-Asiatic, 28. 

Rooney, Dr. James F., 314. 

Reports, Government, 21; in- 
land revenue, 23 ; opium traf- 
fic, 27, 183. 

Rings, drug, 165-177, 178-189, 
190, 201, 208, 259, 275, 291, 
349. 

Riker Island, 78, 290, 377. 

Rotary Club, 181. 

Rosa, Edward Bennett, 394. 

Rosenthal, Herman, 57. 

Royal, Charles E., 131. 



404 



THE BLACK CANDLE 



Ruth, Dr. Erwin C, 167, 185- 
186, 395. 

■ S 

Safford, W. E., 356. ,■/..■■ 

Sainsbury, Dr. R. Harrington, 
372,376,377. 

Saleeby, Dr. C. W., 46. 

Shakespeare, 58, 347. 

Sisters of Charity, 209, 235-237. 

Simon, Dr. Carlton, 386. 

Soldiers, 23, 84-93, 165, 181, 
205,228,376. 

Smuggling, of drugs, 19; oper- 
ations in, 25-26, 34 i; 37-38, 
100-101, 136, 146-150, 154-159, 
172-174, 203, 214-215, 295, 

Sulfonal, 19, 288. 

Suicide, 106, 214. 

Smithy Duncan, M., 296. 

Smithsonian Institute, 356. 

Snuff, 359. 

Spiritualists, 227. 

"Spotters," 345, 347-354. 

Stokes, Admiral Charles R, 
101. 

Stevens, H. H., 129. 

Stoddart, Dr. W. H. B., 225, 
333-334. 

Stoddart, Cora Frances, 283. 

Stringer, Arthur, 220. 

"Stoolers," 176-177, 246, 347, 
354. 

Stovaine, 231. 

Strychnine, 49, 67, 218. 

■'"-' T .'; 
Taxi drivers, 134, 306, 342. 
Terry, Dr. C. E., 18. 
Thompson, Chief -Constable W. 
172-173. 



Thompson, Chief -Constable D. 

381. ■■' y.'"-'. 

Trade, Department of, 24; 
wholesale, 25 ; illicit, 26^ 136- 
143 ; loss through unemploy- 
ment, 118; in country, 140- 
142, 145. 

Trional, 288, 391. 

Trades and Labor Council, 141. 

Towns, Mr. Charles B., 18, 64, 

Tobacco, 112, 356. 

Turkish proverb, 236. 

V.' ' u '. 

Underhill, Dr. 132. 

United States, 18, 24, 25, 26, 34, 
35, 75, 86, 98, 101, 115, 118, t 
119, 136, 167, 172, 184, 192, > 
194, 198, 219, 234, 249,, 254, 
258, 261, 274, 277, 284, 287," 
303, 312, 332, 361, 385. 

Valentia, Adriano, 95. 
Veterinary surgeons, 138, 140; 
254,275,279,382. j 

; w' , 

War, and drugs, 23, 84-93, 165;- 

heroes' association, 181. ' : y.-i 
Warhock, Dr., 334. ; 

Wardell, Dorothea, 173-174. 
Webber, Abraham C, 220, 242, •>. 

260, 285, 380. 
White race, and leadership, 47,7 

93, 188-189, 210, 306. 
Whitman, Walt, 398. ' •'■; 

Whiskey* 21, 323, 325, 255, 300. i 
White Cross Society, 126, 171, 

181-182. 



INDEX 



405 



Whitney Law, 74. 

Wilde, Oscar, 297. 

Women, and drugs, 16-19, 36, 
42-56, 70, 85, 111-112, 120, 
144, 159, 169, 193, 210-218, 
220, 233-239, 289, 303-305, 
309, 314. 

Wood, Arthur, 379. 



Writers, and cocaine, 227-228. 
Y 

Yerba mate, 356. 
Yost, Iyenna Lowe, 117. 
Youths, and drugs, 26, 53, 58, 

114, 120, 123-135, 166, 182, 

223,316. 



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